Monthly Archives: March 2009

Effect of primary neopharyngeal repair on acoustic characteristics of tracheoesophageal voice after total laryngectomy

Conclusion: The four hypopharyngeal repair types – primary pharyngoesophageal myotomy, pharyngeal plexus neurectomy, non-muscle vertical repair and transverse hypopharyngeal repair – were almost equivalent in prevention of pharyngoesophageal spasm in total laryngectomy patients who had undergone primary tracheoesophageal puncture for voice restoration.

from the Journal of Laryngology and Otology

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Hearing results following intratympanic gentamicin perfusion for Ménière’s disease

Conclusion: Intratympanic gentamicin perfusion provides effective control of vertigo in patients with Ménière’s disease. However, significant hearing loss may occur immediately after perfusion; therefore, this treatment should be considered only for patients whose hearing has already been affected by the disease.

from the Journal of Laryngology and Otology

Rehabilitation after acute vestibular disorders

Conclusions: These results would appear to support the effectiveness of a supervised exercise programme for patients following acute onset of vestibular disturbance. A correlation was found in both groups between dynamic gait index results and anxiety. In our experience, a rehabilitation programme seems to reduce dependence on visual cues for postural control.

from the Journal of Laryngology and Otology

Change detection in newborns using a multiple deviant paradigm: A study using magnetoencephalography

Conclusions
These results show that newborns can detect changes to at least four types of deviances within a sound stream. Furthermore, the use of magneto- and electroencephalography is complementary in newborns, since the methods may reveal different outcomes.

Significance
Further studies are warranted to determine whether the present study design can play a role in testing auditory function in clinical infant populations.

from Clinical Neurophysiology

Cortical oscillatory power changes during auditory oddball task revealed by spatially filtered magnetoencephalography

Conclusions
Prefrontal theta and alpha ERS, and frontocentral-parietal delta ERS are functionally engaged in auditory attention and memory updating process.

Significance
Spatially filtered MEG is valuable for detection and source localization of task-related changes in the ongoing oscillatory activity during oddball tasks.

from Clinical Neurophysiology

Electrophysiological study of the basal temporal language area: A convergence zone between language perception and production networks

Conclusion
The findings emphasize the multimodal nature of this region in speech perception. In the context of transient dysfunction, the patient’s lexical semantic processing network is disrupted, reducing spoken output to meaningless phoneme combinations.

Significance
This rare opportunity to study the BTLA “in vivo” demonstrates its pivotal role in lexico-semantic processing for speech production and its multimodal nature in speech perception.

from Clinical Neuropsychology

Galvanic ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials provide new insight into vestibulo-ocular reflexes and unilateral vestibular loss

Conclusions
The infra-orbital response is likely produced primarily by the inferior obliques, producing conjugate torsion away from the cathode. The projection to the ipsilateral eye depends upon normal vestibular function on the contralateral side.

Significance
OVEMPs can be evoked by GVS. While bilateral effects are obtained with unilateral stimulation in normals, the primary vestibular pathway to the inferior oblique in humans is crossed.

from Clinical Neuropsychology

Ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs) require extraocular muscles but not facial or cochlear nerve activity

Conclusions
The results suggested that short-latency, initially negative evoked potentials recorded below the eyes are not affected by cochlear or facial nerve activities and are dependent on the presence of extraocular muscles.

Significance
This study provides the evidence that oVEMPs originate from exraocular muscles activated through the vestibulo-ocular pathway.

from Clinical Neuropsychology

The mismatch negativity: A review of underlying mechanisms

The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a brain response to violations of a rule, established by a sequence of sensory stimuli (typically in the auditory domain) [Näätänen R. Attention and brain function. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum; 1992]. The MMN reflects the brain’s ability to perform automatic comparisons between consecutive stimuli and provides an electrophysiological index of sensory learning and perceptual accuracy. Although the MMN has been studied extensively, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the MMN are not well understood. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the generation of the MMN; amongst these accounts, the “adaptation hypothesis” and the “model adjustment hypothesis” have received the most attention. This paper presents a review of studies that focus on neuronal mechanisms underlying the MMN generation, discusses the two major explanatory hypotheses, and proposes predictive coding as a general framework that attempts to unify both.

from Clinical Neuropsychology

The role of the superior vestibular nerve in generating ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials to bone conducted vibration at Fz

Conclusion
Since all utricular afferents course in the superior vestibular nerve and in 12/13 of these patients the n10 was reduced we conclude that the n10 component of the oVEMP to BCV is probably mediated by the superior vestibular nerve and probably due to activation of mainly utricular receptors.

Significance
The n10 appears to be a simple new test of superior vestibular nerve and probably mainly utricular function.

from Clinical Neuropsychology

The vestibular evoked myogenic potential: A test–retest reliability study

Conclusions
A unilateral muscle contraction controlled by a feedback mechanism resulted in reliable response parameters, comparable right to left and corresponding to literature data obtained in different test conditions.

Significance
The use of a blood pressure manometer as feedback mechanism combined with a meticulously controlled positioning of the head and contraction of the SCM muscle provides a reliable alternative in clinical settings, when the background muscle contraction cannot be measured or software related correction algorithms are not accessible.

from Clinical Neurophysiology

Grandchildren Link To Hearing Loss Tests, UK

New research has identified visiting grandchildren as the main reason grandparents decide to have their hearing tested for the first time.

from Medical News Today.com

LENA Foundation Announces The Development Of An Automatic Autism Screen

The LENA Foundation announced that its researchers have developed an automatic autism screen based on detectable acoustic patterns in the recorded vocalizations of children with autism.

from Medical News Today.com

Yale researchers discover mechanism for

Two-year-olds with autism lack an important building block of social interaction that prompts newborn babies to pay attention to other people. Instead, these children pay attention to physical relationships between movement and sound and miss critical social information. Researchers at the Yale School of Medicine report their results in the March 29 online issue of Nature.

from EurekAlert.org

Constant Noise: Tinnitus, or ringing in the ears, is drawing increased attention as veterans of the Iraq war report problems

Capt. Nathan Green remembers the alarm sounding that day last April in Baghdad’s Green Zone. He remembers running, and then the loud explosion of the rocket hitting 30 feet behind him. He was knocked unconscious, suffered a traumatic brain injury and now hears the high-pitched whine and static buzz of an AM radio. All the time.

from JournalNow.com