Monthly Archives: July 2010

Attribution of false beliefs in the language development of children with Down syndrome

CONCLUSION: The CG showed a better performance in all questions of the false belief test, when compared to the DG. Thus, it was possible to evaluate false belief in children with Down syndrome.

from Revista de Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia

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Audiologic findings and auditory-related complaints of urban bus drivers

CONCLUSION: This study showed a need for the development of preventive actions towards hearing health, in order to promote improvements on work conditions and hearing preservation of bus drivers.

from Revista de Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia

Body and oral motor aspects in a group of children with phonological delay/disorder

CONCLUSION: Phonological delay and disorder do not show significant distinction regarding motor, oral and infectious aspects, together with deleterious oral habits, as shown by the homogeneity between the groups.

from Revista de Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia

Choice of target sounds for therapy: analysis focused on distinctive features

The targets of the treatment can facilitate or difficult acquisitions in the phonological inventory. This study had the aim to verify the effectiveness of the therapy proposed by the Multiple Oppositions Model, taking into consideration the target sounds chosen, as well as to analyze the acquired sounds and the distinctive features, based on the target sounds. The researched group comprised five children with phonological disorder, with an average age of 6;1 (years;months). Speech-language pathology and complementary evaluations were carried out. After the assessments, the subjects underwent speech therapy using the Multiple Oppositions Model. After treatment, another evaluation was carried out, in order to compare the therapeutic evolution and the effectiveness of the chosen sound targets for each subject. The phonological inventory and the number of altered distinctive features before and after therapy were compared for each subject, as well as the distinctive features focused during therapy. The subjects who added more phonemes to their phonological inventory were the ones that most decreased the number of altered distinctive features. It can be concluded that the Multiple Oppositions Model provided improvements on the phonological inventory that were related to the characteristics of the target sounds selected for each subject. The subjects whose target sounds contemplated the work with the majority of the altered distinctive features and the most complex sounds in the phonological hierarchy presented greater acquisitions in their phonological inventories.

from Revista de Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia

Considerations regarding vocal and laryngeal modifications caused by vocal fry in women without voice complaints

The aim of this study was to verify vocal and laryngeal modifications caused by vocal fry in five female subjects without vocal or laryngeal complaints. For this purpose, the sustained emission of the vowel /a/ was digitally recorded, as well as the recording of a videostroboscopic examination of the larynx. Subsequently, the subjects performed the vocal fry in three series of 15 repetitions, with a 30-second interval of passive rest between series, and carried out a second evaluation (recording of the sustained emission of the vowel /a/ and the videostroboscopic examination of the larynx). Both laryngeal and vocal data found prior to and after the vocal fry technique were submitted to acoustic, auditory-perceptive, and videostroboscopic analyses. The acoustic analysis was generated by the Multi Speech program. Analyses showed the following effects of the vocal fry: increase of the vibration of the vocal folds mucosa; alteration or maintenance of voice type and pitch; decrease or maintenance of measures related to jitter and shimmer, as well as the index that suggests glottic noise; decrease of the soft phonation index; maintenance or alteration of the vocal quality and resonance focus, with laryngopharyngeal prevalence; decrease of the fundamental frequency; and increase of frequency and width variations. The study allowed the conclusion that vocal fry had a positive effect on the vibration of the vocal folds mucosa as well as on voice noise, and a negative effect on voice resonance and stability.

from Revista de Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia

Correlation between velopharyngeal closure and nasopharyngeal dimensions after pharyngeal flap surgery assessed by pressure-flow technique

CONCLUSION: Most patients with large flaps presented adequate velopharyngeal closure during speech. However, the findings show that the velopharyngeal orifice area during breathing is not a good predictor of the effectiveness of the pharyngeal flap for speech.

from Revista de Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia

Demographic and socioeconomic aspects of mothers attended in a newborn hearing screening program

CONCLUSION: The studied population was considered in unfavorable conditions for the health and the global development of newborns and infants, for pregnant women within the same socioeconomic status constitute a risk category. These results emphasize the need for the development of health promotion actions for the investigated population.

from Revista de Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia

Description of the feeding dynamics of institutionalized elderly women

CONCLUSION: Environmental, cognitive and behavioral factors related to feeding were significantly present among the subjects of the study, putting deglutition at risk. Other specific deglutition difficulties were also identified. Managing these difficulties is important, in order to avoid health complications for elderly women

from Revista de Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia

Dysphagia in patients with Chagas’ disease and Zenker’s diverticulum

It is described the cases of two patients, one female and one male, both 64 years old, who had Zenker’s diverticulum associated to chagasic esophagopathy. One of them had esophageal dysphagia for five years, later associated with oropharyngeal dysphagia (for nine months). The other patient had oropharyngeal dysphagia for eight months. Both had lived in endemic areas for Chagas’ disease, and had positive serologic tests for the disease. In the clinical evaluation, both patients had slow ingestion of liquids and paste bolus, and residues in oral cavity, without coughing after deglutition. Diagnosis was made by serologic test and radiologic examination of pharynx and esophagus, as well as a careful endoscopic examination. Radiologic results showed, in one of the subjects, pharyngo-esophageal diverticulum (Zenker), and slow barium bolus transit (more than ten seconds to cross the esophageal body), and, in the other patient, Zenker’s diverticulum and normal esophageal transit duration (less than ten seconds), with presence of tertiary contractions. Treatment consisted of diverticulectomy, cricopharyngeal myotomy, and cardiomyotomy of the lower esophageal sphincter for one patient, and cricopharyngeal myotomy for the other one. It is concluded that it is possible to have association of two causes of dysphagia in the same patient: the oropharyngeal, due to Zenker’s diverticulum, and the esophageal, due to Chagas’ disease. The knowledge of cause-effect relationship between these conditions needs further investigations.

from Revista de Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia

Hearing evaluation in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

CONCLUSION: Individuals with HIV/AIDS in this study had peripheral hearing impairment, more pronounced in the group exposed to antiretroviral treatment.

from Revista de Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia

Language profiles in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

from Revista de Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia

Relationship between audiometric findings and auditory and extra-auditory complaints of physical education teachers

CONCLUSIONS: 68.75% of the subjects related extra-auditory complaints. The results showed that, even though hearing loss only affected a small percentage of the studied population (9.37%), half of the teachers already presented audiometric notch in at least one ear.

from Revista de Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia

Relationship between comprehension levels and reading strategies used in a therapeutic program by deaf individuals who communicate through sign language

CONCLUSION: The intervention program based on scaffolding technique, enabled deaf students who communicate through sign language to use more elaboration strategies and less monitoring strategies. Therefore, there was a tendency to change from decoding level to literal reading comprehension level.

from Revista de Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia

Speech-language pathology profile of the Dendê community: perspectives for future actions

CONCLUSION: It was verified that most prevalent Speech-Language Pathology alterations were related to the presence of oral habits, followed by oral and written language aspects. Nevertheless, a low level of hearing and voice complaints were reported. A situational diagnosis helps redirecting the activities practiced in the community, aiming its population. This is achieved through educational initiatives of health prevention and promotion, which should lead to better, quicker and more efficient results.

from Revista de Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia

Teachers’ voice: a review of 15 years of SLP contribution

The purpose of this study was to review Brazilian publication regarding teachers’ voice produced by Speech-Language Pathologists (SLPs) within the period from 1994 to 2008. This transversal study of bibliographic nature was carried out in three stages. The first consisted of data compilation from different sources; the second comprehended the search for the abstracts of the selected references; in the third stage, the publications were classified into four categories: individuals’ assessment, treatment outcome evaluation, intervention description, and bibliographical/theoretical/documental researches. The final sample consisted of 500 publications, from which 415 (83%) were related to the assessment categories. Among these, 357 (86%) evaluated individuals and/or their working conditions, and 58 (14%) had the aim to evaluate treatment outcome. Regarding analyses dimensions of the assessments, 202 studies (48.7%) had more than one. Teachers’ perspective (self-assessment) was the predominant dimension (52.5% of the analyses), followed by auditory-perceptual analyses performed by SLPs (15.2%), and evaluation of working environment and organization (14.9%). The category intervention description had 31 (6.2%) studies, and there were 54 (10.8%) bibliographical/theoretical/documental researches. This literature review confirms that vocal assessment has been privileged in Brazilian researches regarding teachers’ voice. Publications about treatment outcome evaluations are more recent and less representative, indicating a tendency of change of focus that might help the comprehension of the complex use of voice in teaching, and guide future studies on speech-language pathology intervention with these individuals.

from Revista de Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia