Monthly Archives: March 2011
The present study clearly shows that children benefit from the fine structure speech coding strategy in combination with an extended frequency spectrum in the low frequencies, as is offered by the Opus speech processors. This should be taken into consideration when fitting pre- and perilingually deaf children implanted almost a decade previously.
The article aims to test the hypothesis that audiovisual integration can improve spatial hearing in monaural conditions when interaural difference cues are not available. We trained one group of subjects with an audiovisual task, where a flash was presented in parallel with the sound and another group in an auditory task, where only sound from different spatial locations was presented. To check whether the observed audiovisual effect was similar to feedback, the third group was trained using the visual feedback paradigm. Training sessions were administered once per day, for 5 days. The performance level in each group was compared for auditory only stimulation on the first and the last day of practice. Improvement after audiovisual training was several times higher than after auditory practice. The group trained with visual feedback demonstrated a different effect of training with the improvement smaller than the group with audiovisual training. We conclude that cross-modal facilitation is highly important to improve spatial hearing in monaural conditions and may be applied to the rehabilitation of patients with unilateral deafness and after unilateral cochlear implantation.
from PLoS ONE
The results demonstrate that gender differences in auditory ERPs basically originate from a stronger functional synchronization of oscillatory responses generated during stimulus processing.
The results presented contradict the commonly accepted assumption that the EAS is the last remaining muscle under voluntary control and demonstrate complete loss of eye movements in CLIS. The eye muscle was shown to be the last muscle group under voluntary control. The findings suggest ALS as a multisystem disorder, even affecting afferent sensory pathways.
Over a 100 years have passed since Pick’s description of what is now termed frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). FTLD is a topic of intense current research interest yet some relevant contributions by non-English speaking authors have received little attention, which makes the history of FTLD research incomplete. In the hopes of filling some of the gaps in the history of FTLD research, the present article introduces fundamental work carried out in Argentina during the first half of the 20th century by Christfried Jakob and Braulio A. Moyano. Jakob’s neurophilosophy, as well as his empirical descriptions on dementia and theoretic insights into the role of the frontal lobes are highlighted. Moyano’s works on frontotemporal dementia (FTD), specifically concerning language deficits and the concept of focal pathology in Alzheimer disease presenting with progressive aphasia are introduced. These early contributions are examined in the light of the current knowledge on FTLD, highlighting some of the authors’ early original contributions, as well as their misconceptions. These authors remain largely unknown despite the fact that their contributions were fundamental in kindling interest in behavioral neurology in Latin America, which continues to this day.
The similarity of results for Italian (congruous) and jabberwocky sentences on one hand, and the difference of results for French sentences, on the other hand, show that familiarity with intonational contour of utterances/speech provided essential cues to perform the task.
West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease presenting with acute flaccid paralysis and bilateral sensorineural hearing loss
No abstract available.
from the Journal of Neurology
No abstract available.
This study compared self-reported incidence and prevalence of dysphagia in inflammatory myopathy diseases with instrumental data from videofluoroscopy in a cohort of 18 patients with inflammatory myopathies (inclusion body myositis, polymyositis, and dermatomyositis). We found a high self-report of incidence of dysphagia and demonstrated that symptoms described by the patients follow a characteristic pattern. We conclude that there is a high incidence of dysphagia in all three of the inflammatory myopathies. Questions about swallowing should routinely be included in inflammatory myopathy patient examinations in order to appropriately refer patients for further investigation of their swallowing function and avoid the complications associated with dysphagia.
We explored age differences in auditory perception by measuring fMRI adaptation of brain activity to repetitions of sound identity (what) and location (where), using meaningful environmental sounds. In one condition, both sound identity and location were repeated allowing us to assess non-specific adaptation. In other conditions, only one feature was repeated (identity or location) to assess domain-specific adaptation. Both young and older adults showed comparable non-specific adaptation (identity and location) in bilateral temporal lobes, medial parietal cortex, and subcortical regions. However, older adults showed reduced domain-specific adaptation to location repetitions in a distributed set of regions, including frontal and parietal areas, and to identity repetition in anterior temporal cortex. We also re-analyzed data from a previously published 1-back fMRI study, in which participants responded to infrequent repetition of the identity or location of meaningful sounds. This analysis revealed age differences in domain-specific adaptation in a set of brain regions that overlapped substantially with those identified in the adaptation experiment. This converging evidence of reductions in the degree of auditory fMRI adaptation in older adults suggests that the processing of specific auditory “what” and “where” information is altered with age, which may influence cognitive functions that depend on this processing.
The vegetative state (VS) is characterized by the absence of awareness of self or the environment and preserved autonomic functions. The diagnosis relies critically on the lack of consistent signs of purposeful behavior in response to external stimulation. Yet, given that patients with disorders of consciousness often exhibit fragmented movement patterns, voluntary actions may go unnoticed. Here we designed a simple motor paradigm that could potentially detect signs of purposeful behavior in VS patients with mild to severe brain damage by examining the neural correlates of motor preparation in response to verbal commands. Twenty-four patients who met the diagnostic criteria for VS were recruited for this study. Eleven of these patients showing preserved auditory evoked potentials underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test for basic speech processing. Five of these patients, who showed word related activity, were included in a second fMRI study aimed at detecting functional changes in premotor cortex elicited by specific verbal instructions to move either their left or their right hand. Despite the lack of overt muscle activity, two patients out of five activated the dorsal premotor cortex contralateral to the instructed hand, consistent with movement preparation. Our results may reflect residual voluntary processing in these two patients. We believe that the identification of positive results with fMRI using this simple task, may complement the clinical assessment by helping attain a more precise diagnosis in patients with disorders of consciousness.
This review on the efficacy of communication-based treatments for children with autism spectrum disorders is limited
No abstract available.
This cross-sectional study examined the effect of general proficiency and study-abroad experience on pragmatic comprehension in second-language English. Participants were 25 native English speakers and 64 Japanese college students of English divided into three groups. Group 1 (n = 22) had lower proficiency and no study-abroad experience. Group 2 (n = 20) and Group 3 (n = 22) had higher proficiency than Group 1 but differed in their study-abroad experience. Group 2 had no study-abroad experience, but Group 3 had a minimum of 1 year of study-abroad experience in an English-speaking country. They completed a pragmatic listening test measuring their ability to comprehend conventional and nonconventional implicatures. Group performance was compared for the comprehension accuracy scores and response times. There was a significant effect of proficiency on response times but no effect of study-abroad experience. Comprehension accuracy scores revealed mixed findings. It was advantageous for students to have study-abroad experience in the comprehension of nonconventional implicatures and routine expressions but not in indirect refusals.
from Language Learning