Monthly Archives: April 2011

Behavioral profiles of children with auditory processing disorder and specific language impairment

The behavioral profiles of children with APD and SLI were very similar. Although group mean differences were found, they were difficult to interpret in terms of current theories.

from the Journal of Communication Disorders

Computer-Based Script Training for Aphasia: Emerging Themes from Post-Treatment Interviews

This study presents results of post-treatment interviews following computer-based script training for persons with chronic aphasia. Each of the 23 participants received 9 weeks of AphasiaScripts training. Post-treatment interviews were conducted with the person with aphasia and/or a significant other person. The 23 interviews yielded 584 coded comments that were categorized into ten themes. Five of the themes related to the communication behaviors of the participant, whereas the other five related to the computer program and study procedures. Examples of each theme are presented. The themes provide qualitative evidence of change and generalization, supporting the use of this computer-based script training program.

from the Journal of Communication Disorders

Bilateral superior semicircular canal dehiscence in a child with sensorineural hearing loss and without vestibular symptoms

To report a rare case of bilateral superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCCD) in a child. Case report, 11-year-old female patient. Descriptive case report. Audiological findings of bilateral symmetrical low frequency sensorineural hearing loss with ascending curves and bilateral superior semicircular canal dehiscence on a high resolution computed tomography (CAT) scan. The young child presented with bilateral fluctuating hearing loss with no vestibular symptoms. She was found to have bilateral superior semicircular canal dehiscence. We hereby present a rare case of bilateral semicircular canal dehiscence found incidentally on high resolution CAT scan in a young child during work up for bilateral sensorineural hearing loss.

from the International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

Evaluation of cochlear involvement by transient evoked otoacoustic emission test in children with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever

CCHF disease does not impair cochlear function in children. The clinical course of CCHF among children seems to be milder than in adults.

from the International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

Catching signs of autism early: The 1-year well-baby check-up approach

A novel strategy developed by autism researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, called “The One-Year Well-Baby Check Up Approach,” shows promise as a simple way for physicians to detect cases of Autism Syndrome Disorder (ASD), language or developmental delays in babies at an early age.

Led by Karen Pierce, PhD, assistant professor in the UC San Diego Department of Neurosciences, researchers at the UC San Diego Autism Center of Excellence (ACE) assembled a network of 137 pediatricians in the San Diego region and initiated a systematic screen program for all infants at their one-year check up. Their study will be published in the April 28 online edition of the Journal of Pediatrics.

from EurekAlert.org

Big Words, Halved Brains and Small Worlds: Complex Brain Networks of Figurative Language Comprehension

Language comprehension is a complex task that involves a wide network of brain regions. We used topological measures to qualify and quantify the functional connectivity of the networks used under various comprehension conditions. To that aim we developed a technique to represent functional networks based on EEG recordings, taking advantage of their excellent time resolution in order to capture the fast processes that occur during language comprehension. Networks were created by searching for a specific causal relation between areas, the negative feedback loop, which is ubiquitous in many systems. This method is a simple way to construct directed graphs using event-related activity, which can then be analyzed topologically. Brain activity was recorded while subjects read expressions of various types and indicated whether they found them meaningful. Slightly different functional networks were obtained for event-related activity evoked by each expression type. The differences reflect the special contribution of specific regions in each condition and the balance of hemispheric activity involved in comprehending different types of expressions and are consistent with the literature in the field. Our results indicate that representing event-related brain activity as a network using a simple temporal relation, such as the negative feedback loop, to indicate directional connectivity is a viable option for investigation which also derives new information about aspects not reflected in the classical methods for investigating brain activity.

from PLoS ONE

Temporal bone histopathology in neurofibromatosis type 2

Conclusions:
Cochleovestibular schwannomas in NF2 are aggressive neoplasms; they are often multicentric, and demonstrate a propensity to involve the labyrinth. There is often associated secondary degeneration within the cochlea. These features make total removal of these tumors and their removal with preservation of hearing more difficult than with sporadic unilateral cochleovestibular schwannoma.

from The Laryngoscope

Otologic diagnoses in the elderly: Current utilization and predicted workload increase

Conclusion:
These data quantify the current outpatient otology workload and predict a substantial increase for many specialties, including otolaryngology. Efforts to prepare for this increase including manpower planning and education appear imperative.

from The Laryngoscope

Insertion of middle-ear Silastic sheeting during tympanoplasty: hearing outcomes

Results: Patients who had undergone Silastic sheet insertion showed significantly better air conduction, bone conduction and air–bone gap averages one year post-operatively, compared with those who had not.

from the Journal of Laryngology and Otology

Persistent and recurrent conductive deafness following stapedotomy

Conclusion: The best chance of obtaining a successful outcome in stapedotomy is to achieve this for the first procedure. However, revision surgery does increase the medium to long term success rate.

from the Journal of Laryngology and Otology

Prevalence of GJB2-associated deafness and outcomes of cochlear implantation in Iran

Conclusion: Children with GJB2-related deafness benefit from cochlear implantation to the same extent as those with non-GJB2-related deafness.

from the Journal of Laryngology and Otology

Protective effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on the noise-damaged cochlear spiral ganglion

Conclusion: When administered via cochlear infusion following noise damage, brain-derived neurotrophic factor appears to improve the auditory threshold, and to have a protective effect on the spiral ganglion cells.

from the Journal of Laryngology and Otology

Short term effect of hubble-bubble smoking on voice

Conclusion: Even 30 minutes of hubble-bubble smoking can cause a drop in vocal pitch and an increase in laryngeal secretions and vocal fold vasodilation.

from the Journal of Laryngology and Otology

A Meta-Analysis of the RTI Literature for Children at Risk for Reading Disabilities

This article synthesizes the literature comparing at-risk children designated as responders and low responders to interventions in reading. The central question addressed in this review is whether individual differences in reading-related skills at pretest predict responders at posttest across a variety of interventions and sets of criteria for determining responding and low responding. A total of 13 studies met criteria for the meta-analysis, yielding 107 weighted effect sizes (ESs) at posttest (M = .76, SE = .03, 95% confidence interval [CI] =.71, .81) and 108 weighted ESs at pretest (M = 1.02, SE = .03, CI = 1.02, 1.13). The results showed that the magnitude of ES between responders and low responders increased from pretest to posttest on measures of reading (e.g., real word identification = 1.06 vs. 1.53, word attack = 1.10 vs. 1.28, and passage comprehension, 0.45 vs. 1.43). Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that overall posttest ESs were significantly moderated by pretest scores as well as the type of measure administered, whereas no significant moderating effects were found for number of weeks of intervention, length of sessions, number of sessions, type of intervention (one-to-one vs. small group instruction), and criteria for defining responders (cutoff, scores, discrepancy, benchmark). Overall, the synthesis suggested that regardless of type of treatment and identification criteria, response-to-intervention (RTI) conditions were not effective in mitigating learner characteristics related to pretest conditions.

from the Journal of Learning Disabilities

A Synthesis of Read-Aloud Interventions on Early Reading Outcomes Among Preschool Through Third Graders at Risk for Reading Difficulties

A synthesis and meta-analysis of the extant research on the effects of storybook read-aloud interventions for children at risk for reading difficulties ages 3 to 8 is provided. A total of 29 studies met criteria for the synthesis, with 18 studies providing sufficient data for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Read-aloud instruction has been examined using dialogic reading; repeated reading of stories; story reading with limited questioning before, during, and/or after reading; computer-assisted story reading; and story reading with extended vocabulary activities. Significant, positive effects on children’s language, phonological awareness, print concepts, comprehension, and vocabulary outcomes were found. Despite the positive effects for read-aloud interventions, only a small amount of outcome variance was accounted for by intervention type.

from the Journal of Learning Disabilities