Educative processes in the vocal health of teachers: a literature review of Brazilian studies in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology
This literature review analyzes the educative processes of vocal healthc actions aimed at teachers discussed in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology literature produced in Brazil. Our corpus consisted of 63 studies on collective intervention published between 1994 and 2008. The analysis emphasizes the distribution of publications over time; the characterization of the type of educative process (unilateral or dialogic, democratic, participatory and problema-based); the themes/content addressed; the form of development (precise or procedural); and the organization of actions (individually centered or expanded towards working issues). It was observed that 74% of the actions were developed in processes, such as courses, workshops or voice training. The average length of each meeting ranged from 20 minutes to four hours. Seventy nine percent of the educative strategies employed were characterized as unilateral and inconsistent with proposals based on healthcare promotion. The most common themes and topics were: vocal habits/behaviors and vocal hygiene/health (71%); warming up and cooling down, vocal exercises and techniques (50%); anatomy and physiology of vocal production and oral sensorimotor system (44%); vocal parameters (23%); work environment (22%), and use of voice, communication and expression (20%). The focus of the educative process is the individual (100%) and it is generally conducted without considering work conditions, health and quality of life. Work environment aspects were contemplated in only 17% of the publications, teachers’ work organization, in 6%, and school community, in 1%. It was identified the need for organization and revision of forms of development, dynamics, strategies, themes and contents, type and focus of the educative process of public healthcare actions aiming at teachers’ vocal health, according to the perspective of health promotion.