Phonological Processes in the Speech of Jordanian Arabic Children With Cleft Lip and/or Palate
The controlled and free speech of 15 Jordanian male and female children with cleft lip and/or palate was analyzed to account for the different phonological processes exhibited. Study participants were divided into three main age groups, 4 years 2 months to 4 years 7 months, 5 years 3 months to 5 years 6 months, and 6 years 4 months to 6 years 6 months, with bilateral or unilateral cleft lip and/or palate. Based on a productivity scale of a 20% or higher occurrence, results indicated the use of five productive processes: consonants backing, lateralization, depharyngealization, stopping, and final consonant deletion. Other phonological processes—for example, strident deletion, consonant harmony, fronting, syllable reduction, devoicing, liquid gliding, and deaffrication—did not reach the 20% or higher productivity scale. Age correlated significantly with the phonological processes, with the youngest group exhibiting these processes more than the other two groups did. There was no significant correlation between gender and phonological processes usage.