Category Archives: Uncategorized

Colorado Newborns at Most Risk Miss Hearing Screening Tests

from Newswise.com

A new study of Colorado birth records shows that infants with low Apgar scores – the widely used measure of newborn health – are 10 times less likely to receive an initial hearing loss screening than babies with normal scores. Yet these babies are at greater risk for the most common birth defect: hearing loss.

Advertisements

Cowboy and misanthrope: a critical (discourse) analysis of Bush and bin Laden cartoons

from Discourse and Communication

The article investigates the political cartoon construction of two major `players’ on the contemporary political stage, and the semio-linguistic and visual rhetorical tools used to achieve this construction, through an analysis of semiotic-discursive aspects of a small corpus of political cartoons in English and Arabic, all about the two `players’ — George W. Bush and Osama bin Laden — in the aftermath of 9/11 and within the ongoing `war on terror’, followed by a more detailed analysis of two political cartoon texts from the corpus — one in Arabic about Bush and the other in English about bin Laden. A rationale for the combination of semiotics and critical discourse analysis and a discussion of the nature and functions of political cartoon are provided. These are followed by a review of the relevant literature with a focus on political cartoons. The analysis, drawing upon the `dispositive’ model and the incongruity theory of humor, addresses the verbal and visual aspects of the cartoons, instances of blending, incongruity and visual metaphors therein. Some major notions in CDA, for example Van Dijk’s ideological square and Chilton’s (de)legitimation and proximization, are also utilized in examining the sample cartoons. The detailed analysis of the two cartoons elaborates on the salient features and generic aspects of the sample, specifically on incongruity, blending and visual metaphor, toward an understanding of the messages of the cartoons, the tools used to convey these messages and how they contribute to the ongoing war of ideological misrepresentation.

Characteristics Associated With Swallowing Changes After Concurrent Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer

from Archives of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery

Conclusion In patients undergoing concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy, improved swallowing function over baseline is associated with advanced T stage.

Speech Evaluation After Palatal Augmentation in Patients Undergoing Glossectomy

from Archives of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery

Conclusions The palatal augmentation prosthesis improved the intelligibility of spontaneous speech and syllables for patients who underwent glossectomy. It also increased the F2 and F3 values for all vowels and the F1 values for the vowels /o,ó, u/. This effect brought the values of many vowel formants closer to normal.

The Effect of the Palatoplasty Method on the Frequency of Ear Tube Placement

from Archives of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery

Conclusion Children with cleft palate who underwent double-opposing Z-plasty had fewer sets of ear tubes placed postoperatively than patients who had traditional repair.

Religious vehicle stickers in Nigeria: a discourse of identity, faith and social vision

from Discourse and Communication

This study focuses on analysing the ways in which vehicle stickers construct individual and group identities, people’s religious faith and social vision in the context of religious assumptions and practices in Nigeria. Data comprise 73 vehicle stickers collected in Lagos and Ota, between 2006 and 2007 and are analysed within the framework of the post-structuralist model of discourse analysis which views discourse as a product of a complex system of social and institutional practices that sustain its continuous existence (Derrida, 1982; Fairclough, 1989, 1992, 1995; Foucault, 1972, 1981). Results show that through stickers people define their individual and group identities within religious institutional practices. And as a means of group identification, they guarantee social security and privileges. In constructing social vision the stickers help mould the individual aspiration about a future which transcends the present. Significantly, stickers in the data also reveal the tension between Islam and Christianity and the struggle to propagate one above the other.

The emergence of segmental accuracy in young cochlear implant recipients

from Cochlear Implants Internations

In the first steps toward intelligible speech, children must match sounds they can produce with salient word targets from their environment. Differences in auditory history between normal-hearing children (NH) and children receiving cochlear implants (CI) before the age of 24 months afford examination of the production system and auditory perceptual effects on the emergence of early segmental accuracy. Consonant and vowel inventories, accuracy and error patterns during the single-word period were examined in four NH and four CI children. NH and CI groups differed significantly on consonant accuracy, shifting from omissions to correct productions. Vowel productions improved from partially correct to correct. Both groups improved over time and showed similar patterns for segmental accuracy. Results suggest resilience of the production system to differences in auditory history. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Genes that control cell death may play role in age-related hearing loss

from News-Medical.net

Several genes that play a role in how our body’s cells normally auto-destruct may play a role in age-related hearing loss, according to research published online in the journal Apoptosis – a journal devoted to the topic of cell suicide, or programmed cell death.

‘Communication is everything I think.’ Parenting a child who needs Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC)

from the International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders

Conclusions: These parents are experts on their children and may also be experts on AAC. Many factors impact on parents and the level and type of involvement they have with their children and their upbringing. Speech and language therapists need to acknowledge parents’ knowledge and expertise regarding their children. They need to recognize that there are parent, child, family and external factors which impact on parents’ ability and willingness to be involved in speech and language therapist provision, and that these factors are not static over time. The use of ethnographic interviewing techniques should be considered a valuable aspect of speech and language therapist intervention.

Uses and interpretations of non-word repetition tasks in children with and without specific language impairments (SLI)

from the International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders

Conclusions: Because repetition accuracy depends on lexical and sublexical properties, the NRT can be used to examine the structural properties of the lexicon in both children with NL and with SLI. Further, because the task taps so many underlying skills, it is a powerful tool that can be used to identify children with language impairments.

Scientists Discover A Role For Remarkably Precise Timing In The Brain’s ‘Neural Code’

from Medical News Today.com

Neurons in the sound-processing part of the brain’s cortex are experts at timing. With remarkable precision, they fire electrochemical pulses or “spikes” in sync with the cues they receive from other neurons, even when these cues are separated by very small time intervals.

Human papillomavirus vaccine recombinant quadrivalent: Palpitations, dizziness, syncope, weakness and aphasia?: 4 case reports.

from Reactions Weekly

No abstract available.

Auditory Selective Attention Modulates Activation Of Human Inferior Colliculus

from the Journal of Neurosphysiology

Selective auditory attention powerfully modulates neural activity in the human auditory cortex (AC). In contrast, the role of attention in subcortical auditory processing is not well established. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine activation of the human inferior colliculus (IC) during strictly controlled auditory attention tasks. The IC is an obligatory midbrain nucleus of the ascending auditory pathway with diverse internal and external connections. The IC also receives a massive descending projection from the AC suggesting that cortical processes affect IC operations. In the present study, 21 subjects selectively attended to left-ear or right-ear sounds and ignored sounds delivered to the other ear. IC activations depended on the direction of attention indicating that auditory processing in the human IC is not only determined by acoustic input, but also by the current behavioral goals.

I’ll be the judge of that: Diversity in social perceptions of (ING)

from Language in Society

This article examines divergent listener perceptions with an expanded form of the Matched Guise Technique, using 32 matched pairs of short recordings of natural speech. Social evaluations were collected in open-ended interviews (N = 55) and an online experiment (N = 124). Three speakers are described who prompted disagreement about the English variable (ING). One’s -ing use is seen by some as more intelligent and by others as annoying, less intelligent, and trying to impress. Another’s -in guise is seen as compassionate by some and as condescending by others, while a third, when using -in, is seen by some as annoying and less masculine, while others describe him as a masculine “jock.” These findings show that listeners shift their interpretations of a linguistic resource, highlighting the ambiguous role intention plays in social meaning and calling into question long-held assumptions about the need for conscious introspection in sociolinguistic perception.

Repair in membership categorization in French

from Language in Society

Using conversation analysis as methodology, this article provides a link between the local organization of talk and larger societal issues by investigating specific conversational sequences in which French speakers from different speech communities interact. It is argued that in addition to dealing with problems of speaking, hearing, and understanding, repair can simultaneously be used to negotiate linguistic membership. Repair can be used to establish, confirm, or insist on speakers’ belonging to one particular speech community over another. Moreover, participants can use repair to express affiliation and disaffiliation with each other. The implications of this research are discussed, linking the organization of conversation with issues of language and identity, specifically with the social meaning of dialect variety in the Francophone world. Thus, this article demonstrates how phenomena commonly discussed on the macro level are realized and negotiated on the micro level.