Quantitative Study of Vibrational Symmetry of Injured Vocal Folds Via Digital Kymography in Excised Canine Larynges
Conclusion: Digital kymography and curve fitting provide detailed information about the vibratory behavior of injured vocal folds. Awareness of vibratory properties associated with vocal fold injury may aid in diagnosis, and the quantitative abilities of digital kymography may allow for objective treatment selection.
Conclusion: Supervised home training works. This study has proven that it is an effective tool for bolstering linguistic and communicative skills of individuals with aphasia.
Conclusions: Infants in the 2nd year of life exhibit clear differences between tidal breathing and speech-related breathing, but categorically distinct breath support for syllable types with varying articulatory demands was not evident in the present findings. Speech development introduces increasingly complex utterances, so older infants may produce detectable articulation-related adaptations of breathing kinematics. For younger infants, breath support may vary systematically among utterance types, due more to phonatory variations than to articulatory demands.
Conclusion: Results of the present study supplement existing data on the effect of a semantically based treatment for lexical retrieval by manipulating the typicality of category examples.
Vowel Identification by Listeners With Hearing Impairment in Response to Variation in Formant Frequencies
Conclusions: Both increased presentation level for NH listeners and the presence of hearing loss produced a significant change in vowel identification for this stimulus set. Major differences were observed between NH listeners and HI listeners in vowel category overlap and in the sharpness of boundaries between vowel tokens. It is likely that these findings reflect imprecise internal spectral representations due to reduced frequency selectivity.
Developmental Sexual Dimorphism of the Oral and Pharyngeal Portions of the Vocal Tract: An Imaging Study
Conclusions: Assessment of developmental sex differences using localized age ranges is effective in unveiling sex differences that growth rate differences may conceal. Findings on the presence of prepubertal sex differences in the oral region of the VT may clarify, in part, the anatomic basis of documented prepubertal acoustic differences.
Conclusion: IRT is a set of statistical methods that are increasingly used for developing instruments in speech-language pathology. While IRT is not new, its application in speech-language pathology to date has been relatively limited in scope. Several new IRT-based instruments are currently emerging. IRT differs from traditional methods for test development, typically referred to as classical test theory (CTT), in several theoretical and practical ways. Administration, scoring, and interpretation of IRT instruments are different from methods used for most traditional CTT instruments. SLPs will need to understand the basic concepts of IRT instruments to use these tools in their clinical and research work. This article provides an introduction to IRT concepts drawing on examples from speech-language pathology.
Effects of Length, Complexity, and Grammatical Correctness on Stuttering in Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children
Conclusions: Results from the present study were consistent with many earlier reports of English-speaking children. Both length and grammatical factors appear to affect stuttering in Spanish-speaking children. Grammatical errors, however, served as the greatest predictor of stuttering.
Statistical, Practical, Clinical, and Personal Significance: Definitions and Applications in Speech-Language Pathology
Conclusions: Practical significance, an adjunct to statistical significance, refers to the magnitude of a change or a difference between groups. The appropriate existing term for the interpretation of treatment outcomes, or the attribution of meaning or value to treatment outcomes, is clinical significance. To further distinguish between important constructs, the authors suggest incorporating as definitive the existing notion that clinical significance may refer to measures selected or interpreted by professionals or with respect to groups of clients. The term personal significance is introduced to refer to goals, variables, measures, and changes that are of demonstrated value to individual clients.
Conclusion: The results of this review indicate that parent-implemented language interventions are an effective approach to early language intervention for young children with language impairments. Critical features of parent-implemented interventions are discussed in terms of implications for practice and future research.
Using the Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition to Characterize Language in Preschoolers With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Conclusions: The PLS–4 can be used to obtain a general index of early syntax and semantic skill in young children with ASD. Longitudinal data will be necessary to determine how the developmental relationship between receptive and expressive language skills unfolds in children with ASD.
Homesigners as Late Learners: Connecting the Dots from Delayed Acquisition in Childhood to Sign Language Processing in Adulthood
Language acquisition rarely begins at birth for deaf individuals. The consequences of linguistic isolation in early childhood have been investigated from two perspectives. One literature documents the gestural communication systems, called homesign, that deaf children generate prior to any exposure to language. A second literature contrasts the language processing abilities of deaf adults who did or did not have access to a signed language from birth. There is now ample evidence that late learners of a signed language exhibit processing deficits relative to native signers and second language signers, hearing or deaf. This article brings together the research from these two domains to explore why use of a homesign system during early childhood does not support sign language acquisition in adulthood in the way that a first language supports second language acquisition.
Tager-Flusberg and Sullivan (2000) presented a cognitive model of theory of mind (ToM), in which they thought ToM included two components––a social–perceptual component and a social–cognitive component. Facial expression recognition (FER) is an ability tapping the social–perceptual component. Previous findings suggested that normal hearing children did not demonstrate any advantage over those with cochlear implants (CI) or hearing aids (HA) in FER with age and gender matched. In these studies, the ages of the participants with CI or HA were over 7 years old. However, normal hearing preschoolers can accurately recognize basic facial expressions. Children’s early FER skills are essential to later successful social interactions. It is not clear whether preschoolers with CI or HA have problems in FER. Two experiments were conducted to compare the FER of preschoolers with CI or HA with normal hearing children (with age matched). The results of both experiments consistently showed that normal hearing children performed significantly better than those with CI or HA, suggesting to some extent that there was a delay in preschoolers with CI or HA on FER. No significant correlations (with age and type of participants controlled) were found between language ability (measured by PPVT) and FER in Experiment 2, to some extent validating a cognitive model of ToM in another view. The findings suggested that earlier rehabilitation for children with CI or HA should include not only language treatment but also emotional intervention, which would help them catch up with normal hearings as soon as possible.