Purpose. Live oral or recorded video presentations on stuttering were delivered to high school students in order to determine the extent to which their attitudes toward stuttering could be improved. Method. A classroom teacher administered the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes- Stuttering (POSHA-S) to two health classes before and after an oral live presentation by a person who stutters. She also gave the POSHA-S to two other similar classes before and after a True Life®: I Stutter video presentation. The stuttering person in the oral condition was one of three people featured in the video. Also, following the video condition, students filled out the POSHA-S a third time after a short oral presentation by the same person who stutters. Results. Measured attitudes improved overall on the POSHA-S and on selected items. Conclusions. High school students hold similar attitudes toward stuttering and stutterers as adults, and these attitudes can be improved, at least temporarily, by a presentation on stuttering but more via a live presentation than a professionally prepared video
The Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S): Summary Framework and Empirical Comparisons
The final POSHA-S, together with an ongoing and growing archive, can provide increasingly meaningful comparisons for stakeholders measuring public attitudes toward stuttering
There are stigmas associated with many chronic health conditions that emerge in adulthood. People who present manifestations of hearing loss are often perceived by others to be cognitively diminished, less able, and socially incompetent. In order to avoid being identified as a member of a stigmatized group, individuals with hearing loss may choose not to seek health services or fail to comply with recommended treatments. The purpose of this study was to better understand how stigma impacted upon the help-seeking activities of adults with an acquired hearing loss. Ten people who had hearing loss, and were members of peer-support groups participated in audio-recorded semi-structured interviews. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic analyses. Analyses revealed that lasting decisions about hearing loss management were made following ‘critical junctures’, when the negative stress found in the respondent’s social and physical environment far outweighed positive energy, or when the positive energy found in the respondent’s environment far outweighed the negative stress. The time course development of these processes is described.
from the International Journal of Audiology
Purpose. A field test of a survey instrument under development, the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes, Experimental Edition (POSHA-E), designed to investigate language-, culture-, and nation-specific public opinions about stuttering is reported. This investigatiocompared English and French versions of the POSHA-E in widely disparate cultures to explore culturversus language influences. Method. 120 experimental respondents rated POSHA-E items on 1- 9 equappearing interval scales: 30 in English and 30 in French in both Canada and Cameroon. Comparisons were made with 30 matched, monolingual English, American respondents in English only. Results. Between-country differences for stuttering between experimental groups were much larger than between-language differences. Conclusions. The POSHA-E can be translated to another language, i.e. French, without significant change in item meaning and interpretation in two divergent cultures, advancing the development and validity of an instrument that can be used in different language and cultural settings worldwide.
from the Journal of Communication Disorders
The Peer Attitudes Toward Children Who Stutter Scale: Reliability, known groups validity, and negativity of elementary school-age children’s attitudes
Psychometric properties of the Peer Attitudes Toward Children who Stutter (PATCS) scale (Langevin & Hagler, 2004) and the extent to which peer attitudes are negative were re-examined. Results show that internal consistency was .97 and test-retest reliability was .85. In a known groups analysis participants who had contact with someone who stutters had statistically significant higher mean scores (more positive attitudes) than those who had not had contact. Nonsignificant findings for gender and grade call into question the usefulness of these variables as discriminators in future tests of known groups validity of peer attitudes toward children who stutter. Approximately one-fifth of participants had PATCS scores that were somewhat to very negative. These findings support calls for school-based education about stuttering.
from the Journal of Fluency Disorders
The Peer Attitudes Toward Children who Stutter (PATCS) scale: an evaluation of validity, reliability and the negativity of attitudes
Conclusions & Implications: Results provide evidence of the validity and reliability of PATCS and confirm the need for school-based education about stuttering. The PSD and SP factors suggest that education include discussions about (1) similarities and differences among children who do and do not stutter in order to increase acceptance, and (2) making personal choices and handling peer pressure in thinking about children who stutter. The VI factor suggests that open discussion about stuttering may alleviate frustration experienced by listeners and provide the opportunity to give strategies for responding appropriately. Results also suggest that education involve contact with a person who stutters.
Survey of complementary and alternative therapies used by children with specific learning difficulties (dyslexia)
Conclusions & Implications: Educational and health professionals should be aware that many dyslexic children use CAM. Parents of dyslexic children should be provided with evidence-based advice to help them make informed therapeutic choices.
from the Journal of Fluency Disorders
Little is known about how middle school students perceive a similar-aged peer who stutters. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of stuttering frequency, Likert statement type (affective, behavioral, cognitive), and the gender of the listener on middle school students’ perceptions of a peer who stutters. Sixty-four middle school students (10–14 years) individually viewed a video sample of a teen telling a joke at one of four stuttering frequencies (<1%, 5%, 10%, 14%). After the students viewed one of the video samples, they were asked to rate 11 Likert statements that reflected their affective, behavioral, and cognitive perceptions of a peer who stuttered. The results revealed an interaction between stuttering frequency and Likert statement type. Ratings of behavioral statements (speech production characteristics) were significantly more positive for the sample containing <1% stuttering than 10% and 14% stuttering. Ratings for cognitive statements (thought and beliefs) were significantly more positive for the sample containing <1% stuttering than 10% and 14% stuttering. The stuttering frequency of the peer did not significantly influence how students rated affective statements (feelings and emotions). It was also found that male and female middle school students did not significantly differ in their perceptions of a male peer who stutters. Clinical implications are discussed relative to peer teasing, friendship, listener comfort, and social acceptance within a middle school setting for a student who stutters. Future research directions are also discussed.