Neurocognitive and Behavioral Outcomes of Younger Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder at Age Five
Later-born siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are at increased risk for ASD as well as qualitatively similar traits not meeting clinical cutoffs for the disorder. This study examined age five neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes of 39 younger siblings of children with ASD (Sibs-ASD) and 22 younger siblings of typically developing children (Sibs-TD) previously assessed in a longitudinal investigation starting in the second year of life. There were few group differences between Sibs-TD and Sibs-ASD on global measures of IQ, language, or behavior problems. Sibs-ASD did show vulnerabilities on measures of executive functioning, social cognition, and repetitive behaviors. These results highlight the importance of following sibling risk groups over an extended time period and employing measures targeting broader aspects of development.
The present study examined diagnostic differentiation between school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI). Standardized diagnostic instruments were used to investigate the relationship between severity of ‘autism triad’ impairments and group membership. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule was administered to 19 children with PLI and 22 children with ASD. Parents completed the Social Communication Questionnaire. There was a significant difference between diagnostic groups in the level of the severity of behaviors represented by the Communication and Reciprocal Social Interaction sub-domains on both diagnostic measures. Currently displayed Repetitive and Restricted Behaviors and Interests were not found to be useful for differentiating between groups. The similarities found between groups have important implications for intervention.
CONCLUSION: based on the behavioral and cognitive problems found in individuals with WBS, the need for a multidisciplinary follow-up focused on cognitive stimulation and behavior control is confirmed, due to the interference of these characteristics in learning abilities.
The majority of surviving preterm children with periventricular hemorrhagic infarction had cerebral palsy with limited functional impairment at school age. Intelligence was within 1 SD of the norm of preterm children without lesions in 60% to 80% of the children. Verbal memory, in particular, was affected. Behavioral and executive function problems occurred slightly more than in preterm infants without lesions. The functional outcome at school age of preterm children with periventricular hemorrhagic infarction is better than previously thought.
Outcomes of Child Sleep Problems Over the School-Transition Period: Australian Population Longitudinal Study
CONCLUSIONS. Sleep problems during school transition are common and associated with poorer child outcomes. Randomized, controlled trials could determine if population-based sleep interventions can reduce the prevalence and impact of sleep problems.