Blog Archives

Reproducibility and Validity of Patient-Rated Assessment of Speech, Swallowing, and Saliva Control in Parkinson’s Disease

The ROMP provides a reliable and valid instrument to evaluate patient-perceived problems with speech, swallowing, and saliva control in patients with PD or AP.

from Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Prospective studies of swallowing in Mucopolysaccharidosis II (Hunter syndrome) before and after enzyme treatment

Case study with the aim to evaluate swallowing pre- and post-enzyme treatment of an individual with Mucopolysaccharidosis, and to analyze whether this treatment caused swallowing improvement. It was carried out a descriptive study of a male subject with 9 years and 6 months with the severe type of the disease. The subject was observed in three distinct moments: one pre-treatment and two post-treatment assessments. It was carried out a speech-language pathology assessment of dysphagia, a pneumologist’s respiratory assessment, a clinical otorhinolaryngology assessment, and a fiberoptic endoscopic examination of swallowing. After that, results were interpreted according to the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS), and data were descriptively analyzed. Results showed presence of dysphagia with impact on oral feeding in the pre-treatment and the first post-treatment assessments. The second post-treatment assessment did not show any signs of dysphagia, with possibilities for all consistencies, however with restriction to solid consistency due to a significant occlusal alteration. Moreover, the fiberoptic endoscopic examination of swallowing was normal in this assessment, and there was a gradual improvement on the swallowing dynamics along the treatment. The study showed that dysphagia was present and had a negative impact on food dynamics for the subject studied, and also that the enzyme treatment for over a year improved swallowing, with positive impact on food dynamics.

from Revista de Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia

Effect of Posture on Deglutitive Biomechanics in Healthy Individuals

The purpose of this study was to assess displacement of oropharyngeal structures, particularly the hyoid bone and velum, and variations in timing of the pharyngeal stage of swallowing in the upright versus the supine position. Twelve Caucasian adult subjects between 19 and 27 years of age participated. Subjects were recorded swallowing 7 cc of liquid barium in the upright and supine positions. The hyoid bone had a significantly greater amount of anterior displacement while in the supine position compared to that of the upright position (p < 0.01). While in the upright position, the velum comes to a fully elevated position at nearly the same time as the initiation of the pharyngeal swallow (within an average of 27 ms of each other), whereas in the supine position the velum continues to elevate on average 115 ms after the initiation of the pharyngeal swallow. Results indicated a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the amount of velar movement from rest to the fully elevated position between the upright and supine positions for female subjects. The results from the study demonstrate variations in hyoid displacement, velar movement, and bolus movement through the pharynx with respect to the two body positions and the subjects’ gender.

from Dysphagia

Do Cervical Degenerative Diseases Associate with Foreign Body Sensation of the Pharynx?

Foreign body sensation of the pharynx is a common complaint in otolaryngologic practice. The definite cause of this symptom is seldom precisely diagnosed, leading to chronic pharyngitis. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between lump in throat and cervical degenerative disease by their clinical symptoms and the associated image characteristics. All patients with or without the complaint of lump in throat who attended the otolaryngologic clinics of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital—Kaohsiung Medical Center from January 2009 to May 2010 were prospectively eligible for this study. A total of 225 patients who met the inclusion criteria were assigned to either the study group (150 patients with symptoms of lump in the throat) or the control group (75 individuals without symptoms). All patients received plain views of the cervical lateral neck. The study group underwent further diagnostic examinations, including esophagography to exclude other diseases. Symptom scores (range, 0–3) and imaging characteristics such as the number (total spurs) and location (C level) of cervical osteophytes, interspace narrowing, spondylolisthesis, and retrolisthesis were compared between the two groups. It was found that the study group had a significantly greater number of total spurs (P < 0.001), and C45, C56, and C67 were the predominant sites, with significant odds ratios of more than 2 at all these levels. Only C67 revealed a difference in interspace narrowing, and only C45 showed a difference in spondylolisthesis between groups. Hence, a high correlation was found between the lump-in-throat sensation and total number of spurs, especially at the levels of C45, C56, and C67. This result implied that cervical osteophytes might be associated with foreign body sensations of the pharynx.

from Dysphagia

VFS Interjudge Reliability Using a Free and Directed Search

Reports in the literature suggest that clinicians demonstrate poor reliability in rating videofluoroscopic swallow (VFS) variables. Contemporary perception theories suggest that the methods used in VFS reliability studies constrain subjects to make judgments in an abnormal way. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a directed search or a free search approach to rating swallow studies results in better interjudge reliability. Ten speech pathologists served as judges. Five clinical judges were assigned to the directed search group (use checklist) and five to the free search group (unguided observations). Clinical judges interpreted 20 VFS examinations of swallowing. Interjudge reliability of ratings of dysphagia severity, affected stage of swallow, dysphagia symptoms, and attributes identified by clinical judges using a directed search was compared with that using a free search approach. Interjudge reliability for rating the presence of aspiration and penetration was significantly better using a free search (“substantial” to “almost perfect” agreement) compared to a directed search (“moderate” agreement). Reliability of dysphagia severity ratings ranged from “moderate” to “almost perfect” agreement for both methods of search. Reliability for reporting all other symptoms and attributes of dysphagia was variable and was not significantly different between the groups.

from Dysphagia

Comparing the Effects of Rehabilitation Swallowing Therapy vs. Functional Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Therapy in an Encephalitis Patient: A Case Study

A 49-year-old man with pharyngeal dysphagia after encephalitis is presented in this case study. Sixteen months earlier the patient experienced a sudden severe fever which resulted in encephalitis, leading to liquid dysphagia. Despite receiving an initial treatment of swallowing therapy, the patient’s liquid dysphagia did not improve. Functional neuromuscular electrical stimulation, which is a new treatment method, was then applied to the patient. The patient showed improvement in the pharyngeal phase of swallowing. Clinical and treatment observations are reported.

from Dysphagia

Kinematic Analysis of Dysphagia: Significant Parameters of Aspiration Related to Bolus Viscosity

The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of aspiration with respect to the viscosity of ingested material in patients with dysphagia. Seventy patients with dysphagia underwent videofluoroscopic swallow studies (VFSS) between May 1, 2009 and September 30, 2009. Based on the findings of the VFSS, patients were divided into three groups: a thick-fluid aspiration group, a thin-fluid aspiration group, and a no-aspiration group. Kinematic analyses were performed during thick-fluid swallowing. Among our 70 patients, 23 had thick-fluid aspiration, 20 had thin-fluid aspiration, and 27 had no aspiration. A shortened duration of upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening, a shorter interval between UES opening and peak pharyngeal constriction, and a diminished extent of laryngeal elevation were all significant risk factors for thick-fluid aspiration. A prolonged latency of the swallowing reflex, pharyngeal transit time, and the interval between bolus arrival at the vallecula and laryngeal elevation were all significant risk factors for thin-fluid aspiration. Our kinematic analysis of dysphagia employing the VFSS indicated that the mechanisms relevant to aspiration differed with respect to food viscosity.

from Dysphagia

Automated Analysis of Pharyngeal Pressure Data Obtained with High-Resolution Manometry

We present an algorithm developed in MATLAB that can be applied to both normal and disordered swallowing to automatically extract a wide array of measurements from the spatiotemporal plots produced by high-resolution manometry (HRM) of the pharyngeal swallow. The algorithm was developed from data from 12 normal and 3 disordered subjects swallowing 5-ml water boluses. Automated extraction was compared to manual extraction for a subset of seven normal and the three disordered subjects to evaluate algorithm accuracy. Area and line integrals, pressure wave velocity, and pressure gradients during upper esophageal sphincter opening were also measured. Automated extraction showed strong correlations with manual extraction, producing high correlation coefficients in both normal and disordered subjects for maximum velopharyngeal pressure and maximum tongue base pressure. Timing data were also strongly correlated for all variables, including velopharyngeal pressure duration, tongue base pressure duration, and total swallow duration. Preliminary descriptive data on area and line integrals are presented. Our results indicate that the algorithm can effectively extract data automatically from HRM spatiotemporal plots. The efficiency of the algorithm makes it a valuable tool to supplement clinical and research use of HRM.

from Dysphagia

Normal Swallowing Acoustics Across Age, Gender, Bolus Viscosity, and Bolus Volume

Cervical auscultation has been proposed as an augmentative procedure for the subjective clinical swallowing examination due to the tangible differences between normal and dysphagic swallowing sounds. However, the research is incomplete regarding cervical auscultation and swallowing acoustics in that the differences between the sounds of normal versus dysphagic swallowing have yet to be fully understood or quantified. The swallows of 96 reportedly healthy adults, balanced for gender and divided into younger, middle, and older age groups, were audio-recorded while ingesting several boluses of varying viscosity and volume. The audio signals were then analyzed to determine their temporal and acoustic characteristics. Results indicated increasing pharyngeal swallowing duration with increasing age, bolus viscosity, and bolus volume. In addition, an increased duration to peak intensity with increasing age was found in one of our two analyses, as well as with some of the more viscous versus less viscous boluses. Men and older persons produced higher peak intensities and peak frequencies than women and younger persons. Thin liquids were produced with more intensity than honey or more viscous boluses, and with greater frequency than mechanical soft solids. Larger volumes resulted in greater peak frequency values. Some of the acoustic measurements appear to be more useful than others, including the duration of the acoustic swallowing signal and the within-subjects peak intensity variable. We noted that differences in swallowing acoustics were more related to changes in viscosity rather than volume. Finally, within-participant observations were more useful than between-participant observations.

from Dysphagia

Pharyngeal Pressures During Swallowing Within and Across Three Sessions: Within-Subject Variance and Order Effects

No studies have investigated within-subject variation in measures of pharyngeal pressures during swallowing across sessions. This study aimed to document the variation in pharyngeal pressures both within and across three sessions. Twenty healthy participants were recruited for three sessions. For each session, peak or nadir pressures were recorded from the upper pharynx (sensor 1), mid-pharynx (sensor 2), and upper esophageal sphincter (sensor 3) during saliva and 10-ml water bolus swallows. Variance was larger across sessions than within sessions for sensors 1 and 2 but comparable for sensor 3. For all sensors there was a high correlation between the variance across sessions and within session (r = 0.92, p < 0.0001). There were no significant order effects of session or of trial at any sensor with estimated order effects less than 2% and the estimated maximum possible change no larger than 5% for trial and no larger than 12% for session. These data offer direction for longitudinal treatment studies in which pharyngeal pressures are an outcome measurement by (1) providing a basis for power calculations, (2) estimating the likely values of any confounding order effects, and (3) providing suggestions for more reliable data analysis.

from Dysphagia

Pharyngeal Swallowing Sound Profile Assessed after Partial and Total Laryngectomy

Recently, we described three components of a normal pharyngeal swallowing sound. The aim of the present study was to identify variations of these components using synchronized acoustic-radiological data in partially laryngectomized (PL) and totally laryngectomized (TL) patients before and after surgery. In this prospective study, from January 2003 to December 2006 we enrolled 14 patients in a PL group and 9 patients in a TL group. A fluoroscopy camera and a microphone were connected to a computer to obtain acoustic-radiological data (25 images/s). The subjects were asked to perform six deglutitions of 10 ml of barium suspension. The average durations of the sound variables were measured before and after surgery. The duration of the preoperative pharyngeal sound was 602 ms in the PL group and 562 ms in the TL group. It was significantly decreased after the TL (296 ms) and was increased after the PL (740 ms). A typical profile of the swallowing sound for each group was obtained. This study allowed us to describe the main variations of the pharyngeal swallowing sound induced by PL and TL. This noninvasive tool could be useful to assess postoperative swallowing function.

from Dysphagia

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation in the rehabilitation of oropharyngeal dysphagia

The rehabilitation of oropharyngeal dysphagia has a new therapeutic tool, the neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), and the most renowned researchers have been studying the applicability and the results of this approach. The aim of this study was to present a literature review regarding the applicability of NMES in the rehabilitation of oropharyngeal dysphagia. An extensive literature review was carried out, considering the last two decades of research in the area. The review showed that there is still no consensus on the use of NMES in the rehabilitation of dysphagia. It was found that most studies described the use of NMES in isolation, did not describe the techniques associated with speech-language therapy associated to electrotherapy, and used heterogeneous samples that clustered mechanical and neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia. Only recently specific programs have been designed and tested in more homogeneous populations.

from Revista de Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia


Biomechanical Analysis of Hyoid Bone Displacement in Videofluoroscopy: A Systematic Review of Intervention Effects

This systematic review explores studies using biomechanical analysis of hyoid bone displacement in videofluoroscopy of swallowing as a spatial outcome parameter to evaluate intervention effects. Two authors independently carried out the literature search using the electronic databases Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library. Differences in their search findings were settled by discussion. The search was limited to publications in the English, German, French, Spanish, or Dutch language. MeSH terms were used, supplemented by free-text words to identify the most recent publications. In addition, reference lists were searched by hand. Only studies using videofluoroscopy to evaluate the biomechanical effects of swallowing interventions in dysphagic subjects were included in the review. While the body of literature on measuring hyoid bone displacement in videofluoroscopy has grown, only 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several of the 12 studies had methodological shortcomings. In general, the conclusions could not be compared across the studies because of their heterogeneous designs and outcome measures. Overall, several intervention effect studies reported significant results. In particular, bolus modification and swallowing maneuvers showed a greater range of hyoid bone displacement. In light of this review, further research on hyoid bone displacement as a spatial variable in well-defined patient populations using well-defined videofluoroscopic protocols to measure intervention effects is recommended.

from Dysphagia

Voluntary Versus Spontaneous Swallowing in Man

This review examines the evidence regarding the clinical and neurophysiological differences between voluntary and spontaneous swallows. From the clinical point of view, voluntary swallow (VS) occurs when a human has a desire to eat or drink during the awake and aware state. Spontaneous swallow (SS) is the result of accumulated saliva and/or food remnants in the mouth. It occurs without awareness while awake and also during sleep. VS is a part of eating behavior, while SS is a type of protective reflex action. In VS, there is harmonized and orderly activation of perioral, lingual, and submental striated muscles in the oral phase. In SS, the oral phase is bypassed in most cases, although there may be partial excitation. Following the oral phase, both VS and SS have a pharyngeal phase, which is a reflex phenomenon that protects the upper airway from any escape of food and direct the swallowed material into the esophagus. This reflexive phase of swallowing should not be confused with SS. VS and SS are similar regarding their dependence on the swallowing Central Pattern Generator (CPG) at the brainstem, which receives sensory feedback from the oropharynx. There are differences in the role of the corticobulbar input between VS and SS.

from Dysphagia

The Use of Simulation in Training Graduate Students to Perform Transnasal Endoscopy

A challenge facing the field of speech-language pathology is how to equip students at the university level with the transnasal endoscopy skills needed to perform fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). The use of simulation has the potential to allow students to gain transnasal endoscopy experience with repetitive practice without compromising patients. The present study examined the effects of two different forms of simulation training on multiple transnasal endoscopic passes on healthy volunteers by graduate student clinicians as measured by procedure duration and confidence ratings. Eighteen speech-language pathology graduate student clinicians were randomly assigned to groups that utilized either a human patient simulator (HPS) or a non-lifelike simulator for transnasal endoscopy training. Using a flexible nasal endoscope, each clinician performed seven training passes on a simulator and one pass on two different volunteers. Each volunteer was endoscoped two times, once by a clinician trained using a HPS and once by a clinician trained using a non-lifelike simulator. There was no difference in pass times on volunteers between clinicians trained using the HPS and clinicians trained on the non-lifelike simulator. Both training groups were faster and more confident on the second endoscopy on a volunteer than on the first.

from Dysphagia