Purpose: To describe and compare behavioral profiles associated with auditory processing disorder (APD) and specific language impairment (SLI) in school-age children.
from the Journal of Communication Disorders
The behavioral profiles of children with APD and SLI were very similar. Although group mean differences were found, they were difficult to interpret in terms of current theories.
from the Journal of Communication Disorders
One hundred and forty-six years after its first description, the differential diagnosis of Meniere’s disease remains very challenging. The aim of the present study is to review the current knowledge on the advantages and disadvantages of the new diagnostic methods for Meniere’s disease. The importance of accurate diagnosis for primary healthcare systems is also discussed. An extensive search of the literature was performed in Medline and other available database sources. Information from electronic links and related books were also included. Controlled clinical studies, prospective cohort studies, retrospective cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, case reports, written guidelines, systematic reviews, and books were selected. The typical clinical triad of symptoms from the vestibular and cochlear systems (recurrent vertigo, fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus) is usually the key for clinical diagnosis. Glycerol dehydration test and electrocochleography are the main diagnostic tests in current practice, while vestibular evoked myogenic potentials may be used in disease staging. Imagine techniques are not specific enough to set alone the diagnosis of Meniere’s disease, although they may be necessary to exclude other pathologies. Recently developed 3D MRI protocols can delineate the perilymphatic/endolymphatic spaces of the inner ear and aid diagnosis. Meniere’s disease is a continuous problem for the patients and affects their quality of life. Taking into account the frequent nature of the disease in certain countries, efforts for reliable diagnosis, prompt referral, and successful management are undoubtedly cost-effective for healthcare systems.
New Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised Algorithms for Toddlers and Young Preschoolers from 12 to 47 Months of Age
Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Rutter et al. in Autism diagnostic interview-revised. Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, 2003) diagnostic algorithms specific to toddlers and young preschoolers were created using 829 assessments of children aged from 12 to 47 months with ASD, nonspectrum disorders, and typical development. The participants were divided into three more homogeneous groups by language level and age. Items that best differentiated the diagnostic groups were selected and arranged into domains based on multifactor item-response analyses. Using the new algorithms for toddlers and preschool children, we were able to improve sensitivity and specificity compared to the previously developed algorithm.
The systematic review and the results of the population-based study provided little support for the generally accepted distribution of causes of PCHI.
from The Laryngoscope
cluttering individuals present a different fluency profile when compared to their fluent pairs.
Patients with postcricoid vascular lesions usually present with mild to moderate feeding difficulties, and stridor or dyspnea with agitation. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry results suggest that postcricoid vascular lesions may often represent congenital vascular malformations instead of infantile hemangiomas.
from The Laryngoscope
In managing intervention in children with hearing loss, time between diagnosis and onset of early intervention should be kept as short as possible. However, age of entry to early intervention explained only about 4% of the variance in language outcomes.
High-performing adults with compensated dyslexia pose particular challenges to dyslexia diagnostics. We compared the performance of 20 multilingual Finnish university students with suspected dyslexia with 20 age-matched and education-matched controls on an extensive test battery. The battery tapped various aspects of reading, writing, word retrieval, phonological processing and other cognitive functions relevant for dyslexia. Reading and writing were examined in the two domestic languages, Swedish and Finnish. The most prominent group differences in reading and writing emerged on accuracy measures in both languages (reading text aloud, proofreading, writing to dictation, free writing). The dyslexia group also performed less well on speeded segmentation of written input, complex speeded naming and complex phoneme manipulation. The pattern of results fits the phonological deficit hypothesis of dyslexia and indicates the presence of pervasive underlying defects in compensated dyslexia.
The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R): A Scale to Assist the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults: An International Validation Study
The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R) is a valid and reliable instrument to assist the diagnosis of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The 80-question scale was administered to 779 subjects (201 ASD and 578 comparisons). All ASD subjects met inclusion criteria: DSM-IV-TR, ADI/ADOS diagnoses and standardized IQ testing. Mean scores for each of the questions and total mean ASD vs. the comparison groups’ scores were significantly different (p < .0001). Concurrent validity with Constantino Social Responsiveness Scale-Adult = 95.59%. Sensitivity = 97%, specificity = 100%, test–retest reliability r = .987. Cronbach alpha coefficients for the subscales and 4 derived factors were good. We conclude that the RAADS-R is a useful adjunct diagnostic tool for adults with ASD.
A histological examination in the cases of initial diagnosis as chronic otitis media with a polypoid mass in the external ear canal
A significant percentage of polyps in COM maybe the tip of an ‘iceberg’. CT-scan and MRI techniques may be helpful but not always accurate, and biopsies have certain risks. Increased clinical suspicion may limit misdiagnosis and inappropriate management.
from Auris Nasus Larynx
Universal newborn hearing screening in the Champagne-Ardenne region: A 4-year follow-up after early diagnosis of hearing impairment
This UNHS program demonstrates its validity and feasibility for early diagnosis and intervention of congenital hearing impairment. It brought a major impact on the management of congenital hearing impairment in Champagne-Ardenne.
The validity of the calibrated severity scores on the ADOS as reported by Gotham et al. (J Autism Dev Disord 39: 693–705, 2009), was investigated in an independent sample of 1248 Dutch children with 1455 ADOS administrations (modules 1, 2 and 3). The greater comparability between ADOS administrations at different times, ages and in different modules, as reached by Gotham et al. with the calibrated severity measures, seems to be corroborated by the current study for module 1 and to a lesser extent for module 3. For module 2, the calibrated severity scores need to be further investigated within a sample that resembles Gotham’s sample in age and level of verbal functioning.
The human face, with its bone and muscular structures, present singular and peculiar characteristics. It may be classified in three basic types, which are related with shape variation and craniofacial configuration, both vertically and horizontally, influencing directly the dental occlusion, facial harmony, orofacial muscles and stomatognathic functions. For this reason, diagnosing facial type is important to speech-language pathology practice. The aim of the present study was to perform a literature review regarding facial type characteristics, presenting recent researches and studies about the theme. A bibliographical research was carried out in the databases LILACS, SciELO, Web of Science and Google Scholar, in addition to books, dissertations and thesis about the subject in the past ten years. Several field researches proved some characteristics of facial types found, especially, in the older references. Some aspects, however, were controversial when the facial types were compared, such as the eletromyographic activity of the masseter muscle, respiratory mode and the length of the upper lip and of the philtrum. It was possible to conclude that knowing the facial type and correlating it to the stomatognathic functions, muscles and occlusion is an important factor for practical clinic, but the professional should be flexible when comparing the pacient’s characteristics with results found in the literature. Thus, it is possible to avoid determining an abnormality or atypia when the case is only a variability or adaptation.
The DSM IV defines Asperger syndrome (AS) as a pervasive developmental (autistic spectrum) disorder characterized by social deficits and rigid focused interests in the absence of language impairment and cognitive delay. Since its inclusion in the DSM-IV, there has been a dramatic increase in its recognition both in children and adults. However, because studies have generally failed to demonstrate a clear distinction between AS and autism, some researchers have called for its elimination from the forthcoming DSM V. This report argues for a modification of its diagnostic criteria and its continued retention in the diagnostic manual.