Educative processes in the vocal health of teachers: a literature review of Brazilian studies in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology
This literature review analyzes the educative processes of vocal healthc actions aimed at teachers discussed in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology literature produced in Brazil. Our corpus consisted of 63 studies on collective intervention published between 1994 and 2008. The analysis emphasizes the distribution of publications over time; the characterization of the type of educative process (unilateral or dialogic, democratic, participatory and problema-based); the themes/content addressed; the form of development (precise or procedural); and the organization of actions (individually centered or expanded towards working issues). It was observed that 74% of the actions were developed in processes, such as courses, workshops or voice training. The average length of each meeting ranged from 20 minutes to four hours. Seventy nine percent of the educative strategies employed were characterized as unilateral and inconsistent with proposals based on healthcare promotion. The most common themes and topics were: vocal habits/behaviors and vocal hygiene/health (71%); warming up and cooling down, vocal exercises and techniques (50%); anatomy and physiology of vocal production and oral sensorimotor system (44%); vocal parameters (23%); work environment (22%), and use of voice, communication and expression (20%). The focus of the educative process is the individual (100%) and it is generally conducted without considering work conditions, health and quality of life. Work environment aspects were contemplated in only 17% of the publications, teachers’ work organization, in 6%, and school community, in 1%. It was identified the need for organization and revision of forms of development, dynamics, strategies, themes and contents, type and focus of the educative process of public healthcare actions aiming at teachers’ vocal health, according to the perspective of health promotion.
the findings corroborated the relationship among bruxism, oral habits and altered aspects of orofacial motricity in children from the studied age group, reinforcing the necessity of speech therapy actions next to the institutions and families.
CONCLUSION: Given the great number of legislative houses in Brazil, there are few laws that aim towards teachers’ health, especially regarding their voice. Moreover, to make sure that these laws are applied and implemented as vocal health programs, these initiatives should be proposed by the National Constitution, so that the necessary resources for their viability are guaranteed.
BACKGROUND: several authors have pointed to the urgent need of researches and actions involving teachers, in the school environment, that have a preventive and vocal health promotion character with the purpose of improving work conditions.
AIM: to analyze the vocal complaints, laryngeal symptoms, vocal habits and vocal profile of teachers of a public school before and after their participation in voice workshops.
METHOD: the study was divided in different steps: 1st step – closed interview, larynx and perceptive-auditory assessment in which 42 teachers were evaluated; 2nd step – voice workshops; 3rd step – perceptive-auditory reassessment in which 13 teachers were evaluated.
RESULTS: 73% of the subjects presented vocal complaints; 57.14% presented mild to moderate hoarseness, 78.57% presented breathiness and 52.38% vocal tension. Evaluation of the larynx indicated that 75.86% of the subjects presented glottal gaps and 34.48% mucous thickening. After the voice workshops a significant difference was observed in the level of vocal tension, both in the analysis of the /e/ vowel and in the analysis of Spontaneous Speech (p = 0.0277 for p > 0.05 for both). Improvement was observed in vocal care and in the understanding of intervening and determinant factors for vocal alterations, which are present in the teaching environment.
CONCLUSION: health actions, such as voice workshops, are important to trigger changes in the work environment as well as in the health of teachers.
CONCLUSION: The educational process was effective to treat the subjects proposed by the group and allowed the individual empowerment.