Glucocorticoids are hormones released following stress-related events and function to maintain homeostasis. Glucocorticoid receptors localize, among others, to hair cells, spiral ligament and spiral ganglion neurons. Glucocorticoid receptor-induced protection against acoustic trauma is found by i) pretreatment with glucocorticoid agonists; ii) acute restraint stress; and iii) sound conditioning. In contrast, glucocorticoid receptor antagonists exacerbate hearing loss. These findings have important clinical significance since synthetic glucocorticoids are commonly used to treat hearing loss. However, this treatment has limited success since hearing improvement is often not maintained once the treatment has ended, a fact that reduces the overall appeal for this treatment. It must be realized that despite the wide-spread use of glucocorticoids to treat hearing disorders, the molecular mechanisms underlying this treatment are not well characterized. This review will give insight into some physiological and biochemical mechanisms underlying glucocorticoid treatment for preventing hearing loss
from Hearing Research
CONCLUSION: Adult and elderly subjects showed a reduction of handicap in daily activities with the use of hearing aids. The bigger the benefit obtained in the subscale Ease of Communication for the elderly and in the subscale Background Noise for the adults, the greater the handicap reduction.
Pure tympanic membrane perforation increases bone conduction thresholds. The exact mechanism that deteriorates the bone conduction hearing level in patients with pure dry perforated tympanic membrane needs further studies.
from Auris Nasus Larynx
CONCLUSION: The attendance of the families at the basic health unit was less than half of the families who had been invited to take the children for hearing evaluation, regardless if the child had been submitted to the process of identification of hearing loss at the public hospital.
High-frequency audiometry in audiological complementary diagnosis: a revision of the national literature
High-frequency audiometry (HFA) is an important audiological test for early detection of hearing losses caused by leasions in the base of the cochlear duct. In recent years, its use was facilitated because audiometers began to identify frequencies higher than 8 kHz. However, there are differences related to the equipment used, the methodologies followed, and/or to the results and their interpretation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the national scientific production regarding HFA clinical application, to better understand its current use. Articles published and indexed in LILACS, SciELO and Medline databases in the last ten years were researched, using as keyword “audiometria de alta frequência/high-frequency audiometry”. Twenty-four Brazilian scientific papers using HFA were found; most studies evaluated participants with ages ranging from 18 to 50 years; 13 studies used decibel hearing level (dBHL) to determine the thresholds; a few studies compared tonal auditory thresholds between groups to define normality; the authors reported significant differences in high frequency auditory thresholds among age ranges. HFA is used in audiological clinic for early identification of auditory alterations and in the auditory follow-up of subjects exposed to ototoxic drugs and/or otoagressive agents.
CONCLUSION: The CAP tests used in this study indicated their reliability through the test-retest.
TEN-YEAR QUALITY ASSURANCE OF THE NATIONWIDE HEARING SCREENING PROGRAMME IN DUTCH NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNITS
Conclusion: The NHS in Dutch NICUs is effective. Timely identification of hearing loss is improving over time.
from Acta Paediatrica
Clinical characteristics and audiological significance of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions in tinnitus patients with normal hearing
Normal-hearing tinnitus patients with spontaneous otoacoustic emissions have different clinical and audiological characteristics, compared with those without spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. Appropriate evaluation and treatment should be considered at an early stage in these patients.
from the Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Conclusions: In cholesteatoma surgery, there is at most a marginal benefit in preserving the ossicular chain. In the current study, the better hearing outcomes associated with preservation of the ossicular chain were accounted for by patients’ better pre-operative hearing status. This study did not demonstrate a difference in residual disease rate, but was underpowered to do so.
from the Journal of Laryngology and Otology
the procedure was feasible for the neonatal population revealing mean thresholds of up to 60dB for both frequencies. Even though participants presented elevated thresholds, robust amplitude responses were observed.
children with developmental dyslexia may present temporal auditory processing disorders with deficits in phonological processing. Cortical malformations may be the anatomical substrate of these disorders.
Hearing impairment was found in Chinese children of rural areas, especially among the boys. Since the children in rural areas should have no chance to be exposed to the modern industrial noises, it is most likely that the impulse noises from firecrackers caused the partial loss of hearings.
CONCLUSION: It was not found any influences of the period of amplification use over the benefit obtained from hearing aids. There were no differences between the results achieved by new users of linear amplification and those of new users of non linear amplification.