Speech-associated labiomandibular movement in Mandarin-speaking children with quadriplegic cerebral palsy: A kinematic study
The purpose of this study was to investigate the speech-associated labiomandibular movement during articulation production in Mandarin-speaking children with spastic quadriplegic (SQ) cerebral palsy (CP). Twelve children with SQ CP (aged 7–11 years) and 12 age-matched healthy children as controls were enrolled for the study. All children underwent analysis of percentage of consonants correct (PCC) and kinematic analysis of speech tasks using the Vicon Motion 370 system. Kinematic parameters included utterance duration, displacement and velocity of the lip and jaw, coefficient of variation (CV) of lip utterance duration, and spatial and temporal coupling of labiomandibular movement of speech produced in mono-syllable (MS) and poly-syllable (PS) tasks. Children with CP showed lower temporal coupling (MS, p = 0.015; PS, p = 0.007), but not spatial coupling, of labiomandibular movement than healthy children. Children with CP had greater CVs (MS, p = 0.003; PS, p = 0.010) and the peak opening displacement and velocity of lower lip and jaw (p < 0.05) and lower PCC (p < 0.001) than healthy children. Children with SQ CP displayed labiomandibular coupling movement impairment, especially in the aspect of temporal coupling. These children also had high temporal oromotor variability and needed to make more effort to coordinate the labiomandibular movement for speech production.
A literature review was conducted on hyoid and/or laryngeal displacement during swallowing in healthy populations according to several inclusion criteria. Anterior and superior displacement measures of both structures from previously published studies were compiled for meta-analysis. Results showed a large degree of variability across studies for each structure and plane of movement. Potential sources of variation were identified, including statistical, methodological, stimulus-related, and participant-related sources.
Speakers who use an electrolarynx following a total laryngectomy no longer require pulmonary support for speech. Subsequently, chest wall movements may be affected; however, chest wall movements in these speakers are not well defined. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate speech breathing in speakers who use an electrolarynx during speech and reading tasks.
Six speakers who use an electrolarynx underwent an evaluation of chest wall kinematics (e.g., chest wall movements, temporal characteristics of chest wall movement), lung volumes, temporal measures of speech, and the interaction of linguistic influences on ventilation. Results of the present study were compared to previous reports in speakers who use an electrolarynx, as well as to previous reports in typical speakers.
There were no significant differences in lung volumes used and the general movement of the chest wall by task; however, there were differences of note in the temporal aspects of chest wall configuration when compared to previous reports in both typical speakers and speakers who use an electrolarynx. These differences were related to timing and posturing of the chest wall.
The lack of differences in lung volumes and chest wall movements by task indicates that neither reading nor spontaneous speech exerts a greater influence on speech breathing; however, the temporal and posturing results suggest the possibility of a decoupling of the respiratory system from speech following a total laryngectomy and subsequent alaryngeal speech rehabilitation.
from the Journal of Communication Disorders
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the nature and extent of variability in tongue movement during healthy swallowing as a function of aging and gender. In addition, changes were quantified in healthy tongue movements in response to specific differences in the nature of the swallowing task (discrete vs. sequential swallows).
Method: Electromagnetic midsagittal articulography (EMMA) was used to study the swallowing-related movements of markers located in midline on the anterior (blade), middle (body), and posterior (dorsum) tongue in a sample of 34 healthy adults in 2 age groups (under vs. over 50 years of age). Participants performed a series of reiterated water swallows, in either a discrete or a sequential manner.
Results: This study shows that age-related changes in tongue movements during swallowing are restricted to the domain of movement duration. The authors confirm that different tongue regions can be selectively modulated during swallowing tasks and that both functional and anatomical constraints influence the manner in which tongue movement modulation occurs. Sequential swallowing, in comparison to discrete swallowing, elicits simplification or down-scaling of several kinematic parameters.
Conclusion: The data illustrate task-specific stereotyped patterns of tongue movement in swallowing, which are robust to the effects of healthy aging in all aspects other than movement duration.