Normative study of the category fluency test (CFT) from nationwide data on community-dwelling elderly in Korea
Objectives: We determined the influence of demographic characteristics on the categorical verbal fluency and to provided its’ normative data for the community-dwelling elderly with diverse educational attainment. Methods: We administered the CFT using the animal category to 3025 (1420 men and 1605 women) non-demented community-dwelling Koreans aged 60–96 years who had educational levels ranging from 0 to 22 years. Results: Age and education were associated significantly with performance of CFT, with education showing the stronger association. Education accounted for 14.0% of CFT score variance and age accounted for 3.2%. However, gender did not influence performance of the test. We present normative data for CFT stratified by age (60–64, 65–69, 70–74, 75–79, 80–84, and ≥85 years) and education (0, 1–3, 4–6, 7–9, 10–12, and ≥13 years). Conclusions: The CFT norms should provide clinically useful data for evaluating elderly people and help improve the interpretation of verbal fluency tasks and allow for greater diagnostic accuracy for cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
The data from the development of the English and Dutch speech sound system show many similar tendencies. Vowels are mastered by the age of three, most consonants by the age of four and most consonant clusters between 5 and 6–8 years of age. Perhaps, there is a universal trend in speech sound development like there is in language development.
Adaptation and validation of standardized aphasia tests in different languages: Lessons from the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination – Short Form in Greek
The aim of the current study was to adapt the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination – Short Form (BDAE-SF)  to the Greek language and culture, determine the influence of demographic variables on performance and in particular the effects of age and education, develop normative data, and examine the discriminative validity of the test for acute stroke patients. A sample of 129 community healthy adults participated in the study (66 women), covering a broad range of ages and education levels so as to maximize representation of the Greek population and be able to examine the effects of age and education in language performance. Regression models showed that, overall, younger and more educated individuals presented higher performance on several subtests. Normative data for the Greek population are presented in percentile tables. Neurological patients’ performance was compared to that of the neurologically intact population using Wilcoxon’s rank sum test and for the most part was found to be significantly inferior, indicating good discriminant validity of the test. Qualitative errors of patients diagnosed with aphasia on the test are presented, and limitations and generalizable strengths of this adaptation are discussed.
Mean Length of Utterance Levels in 6-Month Intervals for Children 3 to 9 Years With and Without Language Impairments
Conclusion: The results support the reliability and validity of MLU as an index of normative language acquisition and a marker of language impairment. The findings can be used for clinical benchmarking of deficits and language intervention outcomes as well as for comparisons across research samples.
High Frequency (1000 HZ) Tympanometry Findings in Newborns: Normative Data Using a Component Compensated Admittance Approach
Recently clinicians have started to use a new approach, called the component compensation method, to evaluate middle ear function in newborn babies using high frequency (1000 Hz) tympanometry. The present study aimed to establish tympanometric normative data using this new method. Participants were 157 normal, healthy, full-term newborn babies with chronological age between 1 and 8 days. Normative data showing the 90% range for tympanometric peak pressure, admittance at 200 daPa, uncompensated peak admittance, component compensated static admittance (YCC) and traditional baseline compensated static admittance (YBC) are provided. The results showed no significant gender and ear asymmetry effects, nor their interactions with any of the test parameters studied. YCC had a significantly higher mean value than YBC (1.02 ± 0.46 versus 0.66 ± 0.34 mmho). Given that ears with middle ear dysfunction often show severely reduced admittance values, the higher mean admittance result obtained from normal ears using the new method suggests that this method has the potential to better separate normal from abnormal admittance results. Furthermore, this method is mathematically sound since it takes into account the phase difference between admittance quantities when a 1000 Hz probe tone is used.
Author(s): Rafidah Mazlan 1 | Joseph Kei 2 * | Louise Hickson 3 | Asaduzzaman Khan 4 | John Gavranich 5 | Ron Linning 6
Establishing normative high frequency pure tone audiometry (HFPTA) threshold data would assist in monitoring ototoxicity in the paediatric oncology population. The present study aimed to acquire HFPTA (8–16 kHz) data from normally hearing children in a common clinical setting. Participants were 129 normally hearing children (63 males and 66 females), aged between 4 and 13 years (mean = 8.4 years; SD = 2.2 years). HFPTA thresholds at 8, 9, 10, 11.2, 12.5, 14, and 16 kHz were measured using an Interacoustics AC40 audiometer with Koss R/80 high frequency headphones. The results from the normative HFPTA data showed that the mean threshold and standard deviation values increased with frequency. A significant age effect was found with the youngest age group showing poorer HFPTA thresholds than their older counterparts. This indicates that children aged 4 to 6 years require a separate set of norms from children aged 7 years and older.
Author(s): Nuala Beahan 1 | Joseph Kei 2 * | Carlie Driscoll 3 | Rebecca Forde 4 | Matthew le Dilly 5 | Bruce Charles 6