Blog Archives

Anxiety and Stuttering: Continuing to Explore a Complex Relationship

Conclusion: The aims of future research should be to improve research design, increase statistical power, employ multidimensional measures of anxiety, and further develop anxiolytic treatment options for people who stutter.

from American Journal of Speech Language Pathology

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Analysis of the Brazilian speech-language pathology scientific production regarding cerebral palsy

CONCLUSION: The growth of the Brazilian Speech-Language Pathology scientific production regarding cerebral palsy does not follow the growth found in other areas of this science; however, the main epistemological filiation does. Data showed studies about hearing, public health and voice, as well as documental studies and studies regarding adolescents and adults.

from Revista de Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia

Poster 9: A Systematic Review of Reviews to Evaluate the Evidence Supporting Interventions for People With Traumatic Brain Injury

Conclusions: Systematic reviews in traumatic brain injury cover a wide range of topics, but mostly focus on executive function, community reintegration, mental health, and pharmacological interventions. Regardless of methodological quality, research design limitations in the field of Rehabilitation Medicine limit the utility of findings for evidence based practice.

from Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Encoding processes influence word-stem completion priming in Alzheimer’s disease: A meta-analysis

Despite the numerous studies focused on priming performances in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the question of whether word-stem completion priming persists in AD is still prone to controversy. Methodological variations, such as encoding instructions, have been proposed to explain the discrepancy of word-stem completion priming results in AD. We conducted a meta-analysis on 678 AD patients and 640 controls to assess whether word-stem completion priming in AD differs according to instructions provided at encoding. When the data across the different encoding instructions were combined, the results showed that AD patients manifest significant completion priming, even though the magnitude of priming is reduced. Taking into account the different encoding conditions, the results suggested that whereas completion priming is impaired in AD when encoding conditions consist in reading or rating words, priming is equivalent to that of controls when encoding conditions require semantic judgments or generating words. In this latter condition in particular, self-generating a word at encoding may provide an aid to partially overcome conceptual deficits of the patients and increase the degree of adequacy between cognitive operations employed at encoding phase and those triggering implicit retrieval.

from the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology

An Independent Review of Neuromonics Tinnitus Treatment Controlled Clinical Trials

Traditional methods for the clinical management of tinnitus generally involve some combination of three common elements: education/counseling, stress reduction, and use of therapeutic sound. Neuromonics Tinnitus Treatment (NTT), which originated in Australia and recently has gained visibility in the United States, comprises a new variation of traditional tinnitus therapies. NTT uses a proprietary wearable audio player as its primary treatment modality. NTT is unique amongst tinnitus treatments in that a corporate entity controls all operations, including clinician training, provision of sound therapy devices, and oversight of the clinical activities involved in this trademarked therapy. We review here the three published controlled clinical trials of NTT. Observations are offered regarding limitations of these trials with respect to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) and the CONSORT supplement for nonpharmacologic treatments. The CONSORT standards provide rigorous review criteria for randomised clinical trials. The lack of methodological transparency, and the proprietary nature of NTT limits the ability of independent investigators to evaluate the merits of this clinical approach.

from the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Audiology

Screening Accuracy of Level 2 Autism Spectrum Disorder Rating Scales

The goal of this review was to examine the state of Level 2, caregiver-completed rating scales for the screening of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) in individuals above the age of three years. We focused on screening accuracy and paid particular attention to comparison groups. Inclusion criteria required that scales be developed post ICD-10, be ASD-specific, and have published evidence of diagnostic validity in peer-reviewed journals. The five scales reviewed were: the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), Gilliam Autism Rating Scale/Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-Second Edition (GARS/GARS-2), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ), and Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale (ASDS). Twenty total studies were located, most examining the SCQ. Research on the other scales was limited. Comparisons between scales were few and available evidence of diagnostic validity is scarce for certain subpopulations (e.g., lower functioning individuals, PDDNOS). Overall, the SCQ performed well, the SRS and ASSQ showed promise, and the GARS/GARS-2 and ASDS demonstrated poor sensitivity. This review indicates that Level 2 ASD caregiver-completed rating scales are in need of much more scientific scrutiny.

from Autism

Encoding processes influence word-stem completion priming in Alzheimer’s disease: A meta-analysis

Despite the numerous studies focused on priming performances in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the question of whether word-stem completion priming persists in AD is still prone to controversy. Methodological variations, such as encoding instructions, have been proposed to explain the discrepancy of word-stem completion priming results in AD. We conducted a meta-analysis on 678 AD patients and 640 controls to assess whether word-stem completion priming in AD differs according to instructions provided at encoding. When the data across the different encoding instructions were combined, the results showed that AD patients manifest significant completion priming, even though the magnitude of priming is reduced. Taking into account the different encoding conditions, the results suggested that whereas completion priming is impaired in AD when encoding conditions consist in reading or rating words, priming is equivalent to that of controls when encoding conditions require semantic judgments or generating words. In this latter condition in particular, self-generating a word at encoding may provide an aid to partially overcome conceptual deficits of the patients and increase the degree of adequacy between cognitive operations employed at encoding phase and those triggering implicit retrieval.

from the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology

Review of the Impact of Voice Training on the Vocal Quality of Professional Voice Users: Implications for Vocal Health and Recommendations for Further Research

Findings indicate that there is no conclusive evidence that voice training improves the vocal effectiveness of professional voice users, as a result of a range of methodological limitations of the included studies. However, some studies did show that voice training significantly improved the knowledge, awareness, and quality of voice. Therefore, there is a need for robust research to empirically confirm this, with implications for vocal health, and occupational safety and health policies.

from the Journal of Voice

Pilot study: Efficacy of recalling adult hearing-aid users for reassessment after three years within a publicly-funded audiology service

Abstract
Routine recall for reassessment of adult hearing-aid users has been recommended by national audiology standards in the United Kingdom. The objective of this study was to determine whether recalling patients after three years was appropriate within a publicly-funded health service model, by investigating changes in hearing thresholds, and problems presented by adult hearing-aid users at reassessment appointments. Patients who had not had contact (except for the repair service) with the department for three years or more were invited to participate in the pilot reassessment programme, and 62% attended (total of 95 subjects). The reassessment appointment was found to be clearly appropriate for 58% of subjects seen, using our defined criteria. 100% of subjects were also found to need minor interventions. It is suggested that recall for reassessment after three years was generally appropriate for this patient group whose needs were not adequately met by self-referral and repair services. Some evidence was also found that subjects who have not accessed open repair clinics might be suitable for targeting for reassessment appointments.

from the International Journal of Audiology

An overview of the etiology of otosclerosis

from the European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology

Abstract Otosclerosis is the primary disease affecting the homeostasis of otic capsule and is among the most common causes of acquired hearing loss. Otosclerosis is considered as a multifactor disease, caused by both genetic and environmental factors. The aim of the present review is to summarize and analyze the bibliographic data, associated with the etiology of the disease. In some cases, the otosclerosis has an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with incomplete penetrance. Genetic studies reveal the occurrence of at least nine chromosomal loci as candidate genes of the disease. The localized measles virus infection of the otic capsule has been postulated as a possible etiological theory. The role of hormonal factors, immune and bone-remodeling system in the etiopathogenesis of otosclerosis and the association of the disease with the disorders of the connective tissue are the issues of the present study. Despite the extensive research, many etiological factors and theories have been suggested and the process of development of the otosclerosis remains unclear.