Blog Archives

Developing Physiologic Stress Profiles for School-Age Children Who Stutter

: Results reflect an initial investigation into the use of salivary sampling to measure reactivity in children who stutter. As children who stutter have historically been excluded from physiologic stress studies, salivary sampling appears to provide an innovative and minimally invasive option for investigators. Though interpreted with caution secondary to the small sample size, initial findings suggest that in response to normal daily stressors, school-age children with a history of stuttering do not exhibit significantly elevated stress biomarkers.

from Journal of Fluency Disorders

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Functional Seating for School-Age Children With Cerebral Palsy: An Evidence-Based Tutorial

Conclusion: Seating intervention may produce positive body structure and function, activities, and participation effects for school-age children with CP when appropriate equipment is provided for weight bearing, the pelvis is positioned for stability and mobility, and the body is properly aligned. SLPs can support functional seating for school-age children with CP by communicating with professionals with seating expertise and by invoking and monitoring recommended guidelines for children with basic and complex seating needs, respectively.

from Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools

The Relationship between Peer Conflict Resolution Knowledge and Peer Victimization in School-Age Children across the Language Continuum

Peer victimization, or bullying, has been identified as a significant child health priority and children with language impairment (LI) are among those who are vulnerable. Given the mandate of educators to provide support for all students who are bullied regardless of language status, research is needed that integrates the study of risk factors for peer victimization among children who are developing typically and children who have LI. Accordingly, this preliminary study explored the degree to which one potential risk factor, peer conflict resolution knowledge, was related to peer victimization in children across the language continuum, and considered whether or not individual differences in language ability influenced that relationship. Participants included 17 girls and 15 boys aged 9-12 years with a wide range of language abilities, six meeting criteria for LI. Participants completed a hypothetical peer conflict resolution task and a measure of peer victimization. Correlational analyses revealed very different patterns of relationships for boys and girls. Whereas boys’ reports of peer victimization were meaningfully related to how they responded to hypothetical peer conflicts, girls’ reports were most strongly associated with language ability. These preliminary findings suggest that it is important to consider gender when conceptualizing how factors such as peer conflict resolution knowledge might influence children’s risk of being bullied.

from the Journal of Communication Disorders

Innovations in Measuring Peer Conflict Resolution Knowledge in Children with LI: Exploring the Accessibility of a Visual Analogue Rating Scale

This preliminary study explored peer conflict resolution knowledge in children with and without language impairment (LI). Specifically, it evaluated the utility of a visual analogue scale (VAS) for measuring nuances in such knowledge. Children aged 9-12 years, 26 with typically developing language (TLD) and 6 with LI, completed a training protocol and hypothetical task in which they rated goals and strategies that could be pursued following peer conflict. Whereas participants with TLD provided graded judgments using the entire VAS, most children with LI relied solely on the scale anchors. These results suggest at least two possibilities. The less differentiated manner in which participants with LI utilized the VAS may have been influenced by how they viewed the peer conflict situations. Alternatively, additional training may be required to enable them to consistently use the whole scale. Further research is needed to establish whether ratings made by children with LI reflect differences in social perceptions or a need for further experience with the VAS. In either case, distinguishing between these alternatives will likely provide a better understanding of factors that impact the peer relationships of children with LI.

from the Journal of Communication Disorders

Narrative Assessment for Cantonese-Speaking Children

Conclusion and Implications: Narrative assessment can be standardized to be a reliable and valid instrument to assist in the identification of children with language impairment. Syntactic complexity is not only a strong predictor of grade but was also particularly vulnerable in Cantonese-speaking children with specific language impairment. Further diagnostic research using narrative analysis is warranted.

from the Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research

The Hearing Scale Test for hearing screening of school-age children

Conventional PTS only gives a pass/fail result for each screened ear, lacks hearing status assessment, and lacks stratified test values to be recorded for follow-up. In contrast, the HST has stratified hearing scales for each screened ear, which reflects the current hearing status and provides test values that can be recorded for follow-up.

from the International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

The National Outcomes Measurement System for Pediatric Speech-Language Pathology

Discussion: The availability of these data has proven to be a very valuable tool with respect to the efforts of school-based SLPs and administrators to document the beneficial impact of speech-language pathology services in school settings.

from Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools

Reading and spelling in children with severe speech and physical impairments: a comparative study

Abstract
Background: Effective literacy skills are crucial in supporting communication for children with severe speech and physical impairments (SSPI). Reading and spelling difficulties are reported to be over-represented in this group, even where language and cognitive skills are age appropriate.

Aims: To compare the performance of children with SSPI on a range of language, reading and spelling tasks with that of their typically developing peers matched for receptive vocabulary and mental age.

Methods & Procedures: A wide range of tasks was developed as part of a larger study exploring phonological awareness, reading and spelling skills. All tasks were accessible to children with severe physical impairments. Two groups of primary school-aged children were recruited, children with SSPI of average intelligence, and naturally speaking peers, matched for receptive vocabulary. Children were assessed individually on language, non-verbal cognition, phonological awareness, reading and spelling tasks.

Outcomes & Results: Sixteen children with SSPI were recruited. Their performance was compared with that of 15 naturally speaking peers, matched for receptive vocabulary scores. The children with SSPI achieved significantly lower scores on reading and spelling measures relative to their naturally speaking peers. However, at least one participant with SSPI scored at ceiling on each task, indicating that SSPI do not preclude the development of reading and spelling, at least in the early stages of literacy development.

Conclusions & Implications: This study indicates that some children with severe speech impairments can develop phonological awareness, reading and spelling skills. However, the data suggest that phonological awareness may not be as good a predictor of reading and spelling abilities in this group of children as in typically developing children. Further research is needed to track development of reading and spelling, as well as the instructional support needed to scaffold more effective skills in these areas.

from the International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders

Effects of listening ability on speaking, writing and reading skills of children who were suspected of auditory processing difficulty

It was concluded that, for school-aged children, APD can lead to or is associated with difficulties in written language.

from the International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

Speech disruptions in the sentence formulation of school-age children with specific language impairment

Conclusions & Implications: School-age children with specific language impairment appear to have difficulty with sentence formulation when compared with typically developing peers even when grammatical accuracy is high. We concluded that school-age children with specific language impairment may demonstrate subtle but persistent language formulation difficulties.

from the International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders

Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on special education in school-aged children

from Child: Care, Health and Development

Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on special education at age 7 with adjustment for covariates.

Methods As part of the prospective, longitudinal, multi-site study of children with prenatal cocaine exposure (Maternal Lifestyle Study), school records were reviewed for 943 children at 7 years to determine involvement in special education outcomes: (1) individualized education plan; (2) special education conditions; (3) support services; (4) special education classes; and (5) speech and language services. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on these outcomes with environmental, maternal and infant medical variables as covariates, as well as with and without low child IQ.

Results Complete data for each analysis model were available for 737–916 children. When controlling for covariates including low child IQ, prenatal cocaine exposure had a significant effect on individualized education plan. When low child IQ was not included in the model, prenatal cocaine exposure had a significant effect on support services. Male gender, low birthweight, white race and low child IQ also predicted individualized education plan. Low birthweight and low child IQ were significant in all models. White race was also significant in speech and language services. Other covariate effects were model specific. When included in the models, low child IQ accounted for more of the variance and changed the significance of other covariates.

Conclusions Prenatal cocaine exposure increased the likelihood of receiving an individualized education plan and support services, with adjustment for covariates. Low birthweight and low child IQ increased the likelihood of all outcomes. The finding that white children were more likely to get an individualized education plan and speech and language services could indicate a greater advantage in getting educational resources for this population.

Social knowledge in children with language impairments: Examination of strategies, predicted consequences, and goals in peer conflict situations

from Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics

This study investigated social knowledge in school-age children, aged 8-12 years, with and without language impairment (LI and TD groups). A hypothetical peer conflict task was administered to examine the relationship among prosocial responses and parent/teacher ratings of children’s social behaviours. Stimuli included 12 hypothetical peer conflict vignettes presented in an open-ended and forced choice condition. The LI group generated (open-ended) and selected (forced choice) fewer prosocial strategies. When asked to predict a friend’s reaction to a selected conflict resolution strategy, the LI group predicted fewer positive consequences; however, the proportion of prosocial strategies followed by prediction of a positive peer consequence was similar across groups. Both groups identified more self-interest than relationship goals as the rationale for selected strategies. In the LI group, teacher ratings of children’s social skills and problems in peer provocation situations were associated with selection of prosocial strategies. Implications for clinical service providers are discussed.

Supporting Children with Cochlear Implant in Mainstream schools for LSAs

from the National Library for Health

Supporting Children with Cochlear Implant in Mainstream schools for LSAsHosted by Wandsworth HI Service and supported by NDCS
This course takes place at:

Barnes Room, Education Suite, 2nd Floor
Queen Mary’s Hospital
Roehampton, SW15 5PN.

Please register as usual through the link below

The day will include:

Cochlear Implants how do they work?
Update on expectations, outcomes and current research
Issues of management with C.I pupils in the classroom
Management of technology in the classroom environment
Consider the role of the LSA
For further information contact:

The Ear Foundation
Marjorie Sherman House
83 Sherwin Road
Lenton
NOTTINGHAM
NG7 2FB
UK

Tel : 0115 942 1985
Fax : 0115 924 9054

http://www.earfoundation.org.uk/bookings/?id=402
Where:London
When:23 Sep 2008 10:00 – 16:00

Reception thresholds for sentences in quiet, continuous noise, and interrupted noise in school-age children

from the Journal of the American Academy of Audiology

Sentence recognition in noise was employed to investigate the development of temporal resolution in school-age children. Eighty children aged 6 to 15 years and 16 young adults participated. Reception thresholds for sentences (RTSs) were determined in quiet and in backgrounds of competing continuous and interrupted noise. In the noise conditions, RTSs were determined with a fixed noise level. RTSs were higher in quiet for six- to seven-year-old children (p = .006). Performance was better in the interrupted noise evidenced by lower RTS signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) relative to continuous noise (p < .0001). An effect of age was found in noise (p < .0001) where RTS S/Ns decreased with increasing age. Specifically, children under 14 years performed worse than adults. “Release from masking” was computed by subtracting RTS S/Ns in interrupted noise from continuous noise for each participant. There was no significant difference in RTS S/N difference scores as a function of age (p = .057). Children were more adversely affected by noise and needed greater S/Ns in order to perform as well as adults. Since there was no effect of age on the amount of release from masking, one can suggest that school-age children have inherently poorer processing efficiency rather than temporal resolution.

Social knowledge in children with language impairments: Examination of strategies, predicted consequences, and goals in peer conflict situations

from Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics

This study investigated social knowledge in school-age children, aged 8-12 years, with and without language impairment (LI and TD groups). A hypothetical peer conflict task was administered to examine the relationship among prosocial responses and parent/teacher ratings of children’s social behaviours. Stimuli included 12 hypothetical peer conflict vignettes presented in an open-ended and forced choice condition. The LI group generated (open-ended) and selected (forced choice) fewer prosocial strategies. When asked to predict a friend’s reaction to a selected conflict resolution strategy, the LI group predicted fewer positive consequences; however, the proportion of prosocial strategies followed by prediction of a positive peer consequence was similar across groups. Both groups identified more self-interest than relationship goals as the rationale for selected strategies. In the LI group, teacher ratings of children’s social skills and problems in peer provocation situations were associated with selection of prosocial strategies. Implications for clinical service providers are discussed.