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A Comparison of Oral and Written English Styles in African American Students at Different Stages of Writing Development

Conclusion: These results suggest that there is likely a period in writing development when speakers of AAE learn to dialect switch in their writing.

from Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools

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Relationships between speech perception abilities and spoken language skills in young children with hearing loss

Abstract
The goal of this study was to examine the relationships between scores obtained from measures of speech perception and language in a group of young children with hearing loss (HL). Eighteen children (mean age = 4.3 years) and their mothers participated in this study. Speech perception was measured using the online imitative test of speech pattern contrast perception (OLIMSPAC). Standardized language age equivalent scores were obtained using the Reynell developmental language scales-III. Number of word tokens, word types, and mean length of utterance (MLU) were extracted from the children’s spontaneous language samples. Significant positive relationships were observed between children’s OLIMSPAC scores and both standardized language scores (r ranging from 0.60 to 0.69; p <0.01) and all measures derived from children's spontaneous language samples (r ranging from 0.80 to 0.86; p<0.01). After controlling for child age, OLIMSPAC scores explained 34.1% of the variance in children's MLU. Using a new speech perception measure with reduced language demands, strong positive correlations were evident between speech perception and language skills for a young group of children with HL.

from the International Journal of Audiology

Relationships between speech perception abilities and spoken language skills in young children with hearing loss

Abstract
The goal of this study was to examine the relationships between scores obtained from measures of speech perception and language in a group of young children with hearing loss (HL). Eighteen children (mean age = 4.3 years) and their mothers participated in this study. Speech perception was measured using the online imitative test of speech pattern contrast perception (OLIMSPAC). Standardized language age equivalent scores were obtained using the Reynell developmental language scales-III. Number of word tokens, word types, and mean length of utterance (MLU) were extracted from the children’s spontaneous language samples. Significant positive relationships were observed between children’s OLIMSPAC scores and both standardized language scores (r ranging from 0.60 to 0.69; p <0.01) and all measures derived from children's spontaneous language samples (r ranging from 0.80 to 0.86; p<0.01). After controlling for child age, OLIMSPAC scores explained 34.1% of the variance in children's MLU. Using a new speech perception measure with reduced language demands, strong positive correlations were evident between speech perception and language skills for a young group of children with HL.

from the International Journal of Audiology

Relationships between speech perception abilities and spoken language skills in young children with hearing loss

The goal of this study was to examine the relationships between scores obtained from measures of speech perception and language in a group of young children with hearing loss (HL). Eighteen children (mean age = 4.3 years) and their mothers participated in this study. Speech perception was measured using the online imitative test of speech pattern contrast perception (OLIMSPAC). Standardized language age equivalent scores were obtained using the Reynell developmental language scales-III. Number of word tokens, word types, and mean length of utterance (MLU) were extracted from the children’s spontaneous language samples. Significant positive relationships were observed between children’s OLIMSPAC scores and both standardized language scores (r ranging from 0.60 to 0.69; p <0.01) and all measures derived from children's spontaneous language samples (r ranging from 0.80 to 0.86; p<0.01). After controlling for child age, OLIMSPAC scores explained 34.1% of the variance in children's MLU. Using a new speech perception measure with reduced language demands, strong positive correlations were evident between speech perception and language skills for a young group of children with HL.

from the International Journal of Audiology

Relationships between speech perception abilities and spoken language skills in young children with hearing loss

The goal of this study was to examine the relationships between scores obtained from measures of speech perception and language in a group of young children with hearing loss (HL). Eighteen children (mean age = 4.3 years) and their mothers participated in this study. Speech perception was measured using the online imitative test of speech pattern contrast perception (OLIMSPAC). Standardized language age equivalent scores were obtained using the Reynell developmental language scales-III. Number of word tokens, word types, and mean length of utterance (MLU) were extracted from the children’s spontaneous language samples. Significant positive relationships were observed between children’s OLIMSPAC scores and both standardized language scores (r ranging from 0.60 to 0.69; p <0.01) and all measures derived from children's spontaneous language samples (r ranging from 0.80 to 0.86; p<0.01). After controlling for child age, OLIMSPAC scores explained 34.1% of the variance in children's MLU. Using a new speech perception measure with reduced language demands, strong positive correlations were evident between speech perception and language skills for a young group of children with HL.

from the International Journal of Audiology

Expressive spoken language development in deaf children with cochlear implants who are beginning formal education

This paper assesses the expressive spoken grammar skills of young deaf children using cochlear implants who are beginning formal education, compares it with that achieved by normally hearing children and considers possible implications for educational management. Spoken language grammar was assessed, three years after implantation, in 45 children with profound deafness who were implanted between ten and 36 months of age (mean age = 27 months), using the South Tyneside Assessment of Syntactic Structures (Armstrong and Ainley, 1983) which is based on the Language Assessment and Remediation Screening Procedure (Crystal et al., 1976). Of the children in this study aged between four and six years, 58 per cent (26) were at or above the expressive spoken language grammatical level of normally hearing three year olds after three years of consistent cochlear implant use: however, 42 per cent (19) had skills below this level. Aetiology of deafness, age at implantation, educational placement, mode of communication and presence of additional disorders did not have a statistically significant effect (accepted at p 0.05) on the development of expressive spoken grammar skills. While just over half of the group had acquired spoken language grammar skills equivalent to or above those of a normally hearing three year old, there remains a sizeable group who, after three years of cochlear implant use, had not attained this level. Spoken language grammar therefore remains an area of delay for many of the children in this group. All the children were attending school with hearing children whose language skills are likely to be in the normal range for four to six year olds. We therefore need to ensure that the ongoing educational management of these deaf children with implants addresses their spoken grammar delay in order that they can benefit more fully from formal education. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

from Deafness and Education International

A comparative study of speech development between deaf children with cochlear implants who have been educated with spoken or spoken + sign language

Objective
To compare speech development following unilateral cochlear implant (CI) between a group of prelingually deaf children who have been educated exclusively using spoken language and another group who have used two languages (spoken and sign language).

Design
A simple group quasi-experimental design was used with a control group.

Methods
The sample comprised 7 girls and 11 boys, aged between 4 and 8 years old, who received a CI between the ages of 15 months and 5 years old. The sample was divided into two groups, G1—bilingual and G2—spoken language. In both groups, aspects such as speech intelligibility, receptive vocabulary, psycho-linguistic skills, adaptive behaviour and behavioural problems were measured.

Results
The children in Group 1 (bilingual) had better verbal and manual expression whereas those in Group 2 (spoken) achieved better results in terms of speech intelligibility, auditory reception and grammatical closure. These differences were confirmed statistically using Analysis of Variance. No significant differences were observed in relation to: receptive vocabulary, social and communicative skills, visual reception, auditory and visual association, visual closure and visual or auditory sequential memory.

Conclusion
The development of speech in these children is irrefutable; however, this study contributes a paradoxical element to the discussion: the bilingual group obtained better results in verbal fluency, hence these children should be able to evoke a greater number of words than those educated using just spoken language.

from the International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology