Blog Archives

Value of ultrasonography in diagnosis of pediatric vocal fold paralysis

Conclusion
MGA and VAA are quantitative indicators of vocal fold immobility. Ultrasound is a reliable method of diagnosis of pediatric VFP. To diagnose VFP from an ultrasound image, the criteria are: (1) abnormal mobility (this was the most important and direct evidence), (2) hyperechoic air-column band of the glottic rima during phonation, (3) flaccid vocal fold and (4) asymmetry of the glottal structures.

from the International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

Advertisements

A new and less invasive procedure for arytenoid adduction surgery

Conclusions:
EAAS is a simple and effective arytenoid rotation procedure.

from The Laryngoscope

Ramsay Hunt Syndrome With Severe Dysphagia

Ramsay Hunt syndrome, first described by J. Ramsay Hunt in 1907, encompassed the symptoms of otalgia, erythematous vesicular rash on the auricle, and facial paralysis. Although rare, in some cases, the varicella zoster virus responsible for the illness can also be associated with involvement of cranial nerves III–XII, cervical nerves, aseptic meningitis, and the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. We present a case of a patient with clinical evidence of Ramsay Hunt syndrome involving the cranial nerves V, VII, VIII, X, and, possibly, XII. Pharyngeal wall and vocal fold paralysis, and severely reduced laryngeal elevation, resulted in such significant dysphagia that percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement was required.

from the Journal of Voice

Optimal arytenoid adduction based on quantitative real-time voice aanalysis

Conclusions:
VE and perturbation parameters were sensitive to the degree of arytenoid rotation. Using real-time voice analysis may aid surgeons in determining the optimal degree of arytenoid rotation when performing AA. Testing this method in patients and determining if optimal vocal outcomes are associated with optimal respiratory and swallowing outcomes will be essential to establishing clinical viability.

from The Laryngoscope

Analysis of laryngeal framework surgery: 10-year follow-up to a national survey

Laryngeal framework surgeries are being performed with increasing frequency in the United States. The overall complication rate is slightly increased in the present study, but airway compromise and poor vocal outcome are decreased, and the need for revision surgery is unchanged. These findings suggest a continued high level of efficacy of these procedures. Laryngoscope, 2010

from The Laryngoscope

Percutaneous injection laryngoplasty in the management of acute vocal fold paralysis

Percutaneous injection laryngoplasty is a viable option for immediate rehabilitation of acute vocal fold paralysis, and can be performed in the inpatient setting. With dysphagia and aspiration secondary to multiple cranial nerve palsies, medialization of the paralyzed cord alone may be insufficient to restore safe oral alimentation. Laryngoscope, 2010

from The Laryngoscope

Cepstral Analysis of Voice in Unilateral Adductor Vocal Fold Palsy

The present study investigated the CPP in subjects with UVFP. Cepstral deviations in the clinical group are explained to be the result of the presence of phonatory gap, leading to the lower values of CPP.

from the Journal of Voice

Modifications of Vestibular Fold Shape From Respiration to Phonation in Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis

The diversity of vestibular fold (VeF) behavior during phonation, as well as the lack of insight regarding both the anatomy and muscle fiber composition hinder our understanding of their role during phonation. The concave shape of the free margin of VeF appears to be standard, but little is known regarding the variability of this shape. We, therefore, sought to determine the laryngoscopic features related to changes in the free margin of the VeFs during phonation in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Laryngeal images from 39 patients with unilateral paralysis associated with recurrent laryngeal nerve damage were evaluated with regard to variations in length and shape of the VeFs (concave, straight, or convex) during both respiration and phonation. The VeFs on both the paralyzed and unaffected sides were analyzed during both phonation and respiration resulting in 156 total images. During phonation, all VeFs on the nonparalyzed side were straight or convex, whereas on the paralyzed side, only 20 of the 39 were straight or convex during phonation. During respiration, significant differences in the shape of the nonparalyzed side were observed. During phonation, a nonconcave appearance on the paralyzed side usually correlated with a similar appearance during respiration. VeF length decreased during phonation in 30 nonparalyzed VeFs in contrast to only 13 paralyzed folds. When subjects switched from respiration to phonation, the VeFs were typically nonconcave on the nonparalyzed side. In contrast, on the paralyzed side, nonconcave VeFs were consistent across both tasks. In patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis, VeF conformation is likely determined from extralaryngeal than intrinsic muscle. These findings have important theoretical considerations for laryngeal treatment.

from the Journal of Voice

Modifications of Vestibular Fold Shape From Respiration to Phonation in Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis

The diversity of vestibular fold (VeF) behavior during phonation, as well as the lack of insight regarding both the anatomy and muscle fiber composition hinder our understanding of their role during phonation. The concave shape of the free margin of VeF appears to be standard, but little is known regarding the variability of this shape. We, therefore, sought to determine the laryngoscopic features related to changes in the free margin of the VeFs during phonation in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Laryngeal images from 39 patients with unilateral paralysis associated with recurrent laryngeal nerve damage were evaluated with regard to variations in length and shape of the VeFs (concave, straight, or convex) during both respiration and phonation. The VeFs on both the paralyzed and unaffected sides were analyzed during both phonation and respiration resulting in 156 total images. During phonation, all VeFs on the nonparalyzed side were straight or convex, whereas on the paralyzed side, only 20 of the 39 were straight or convex during phonation. During respiration, significant differences in the shape of the nonparalyzed side were observed. During phonation, a nonconcave appearance on the paralyzed side usually correlated with a similar appearance during respiration. VeF length decreased during phonation in 30 nonparalyzed VeFs in contrast to only 13 paralyzed folds. When subjects switched from respiration to phonation, the VeFs were typically nonconcave on the nonparalyzed side. In contrast, on the paralyzed side, nonconcave VeFs were consistent across both tasks. In patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis, VeF conformation is likely determined from extralaryngeal than intrinsic muscle. These findings have important theoretical considerations for laryngeal treatment.

from the Journal of Voice

Objective Dysphonia Quantification in Vocal Fold Paralysis: Comparing Nonlinear with Classical Measures

Clinical acoustic voice-recording analysis is usually performed using classical perturbation measures, including jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratios (NHRs). However, restrictive mathematical limitations of these measures prevent analysis for severely dysphonic voices. Previous studies of alternative nonlinear random measures addressed wide varieties of vocal pathologies. Here, we analyze a single vocal pathology cohort, testing the performance of these alternative measures alongside classical measures. We present voice analysis pre- and postoperatively in 17 patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP). The patients underwent standard medialization thyroplasty surgery, and the voices were analyzed using jitter, shimmer, NHR, nonlinear recurrence period density entropy (RPDE), detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), and correlation dimension. In addition, we similarly analyzed 11 healthy controls. Systematizing the preanalysis editing of the recordings, we found that the novel measures were more stable and, hence, reliable than the classical measures on healthy controls. RPDE and jitter are sensitive to improvements pre- to postoperation. Shimmer, NHR, and DFA showed no significant change (P > 0.05). All measures detect statistically significant and clinically important differences between controls and patients, both treated and untreated (P 0.7). Pre- to postoperation grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain (GRBAS) ratings show statistically significant and clinically important improvement in overall dysphonia grade (G) (AUC = 0.946, P < 0.001).

Recalculating AUCs from other study data, we compare these results in terms of clinical importance. We conclude that, when preanalysis editing is systematized, nonlinear random measures may be useful for monitoring UVFP-treatment effectiveness, and there may be applications to other forms of dysphonia.

from the Journal of Voice

Long-term results of autologous fascia in unilateral vocal fold paralysis

Abstract The objective of this retrospective clinical review was to evaluate the long-term results of injection laryngoplasty with autologous fascia as a single, primary procedure in unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Forty-three patients who had undergone injection laryngoplasty between 1996 and 2003 entered the study. Clinical examination and videostroboscopy were performed and the voice handicap index was analyzed postoperatively. Pre- and post-operative evaluation included computerized acoustic analysis and perceptual evaluation. The results remained stable 3–10 years and were not affected by the length of follow-up, the delay from paralysis to surgery, or the age of the patient. Although most mean values of voice parameters were significantly improved, results in individual patients were difficult to predict. Poor results were especially related to cases caused by intrathoracic lesions. Wide glottal gaps should not be treated with fascia injection. Fascia is a stable graft and most suitable for cases with less severe glottal insufficiency.

from the European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology

Therapy of Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis With Polydimethylsiloxane Injection Laryngoplasty: Our Experience

The objective of this study was to document functional results and to compare objective and subjective voice measures after endoscopic laryngoplasty with injection of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) for the treatment of unilateral vocal fold paralysis, and to verify PDMS biocompatibility in vocal fold. The design used was a longitudinal prospective study. Fifteen patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis underwent endoscopic injection of PDMS in general anesthesia. Accurate voice evaluation protocol (acoustic and aerodynamics analyses, GIRBAS [Grade, Instability, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, and Strain] scale, videostrobolaryngoscopy, and Voice Handicap Index test) before, after surgery, and at follow-up time was performed. The median follow-up was 21.7 months (range, 6–35). Data obtained were statistically significant. All acoustic, aerodynamics, perceptive, and subjective evaluations showed a significant improvement. No complications due to PDMS were reported. Functional results were found comparable to framework surgery. Endoscopic injection laryngoplasty with PDMS is a safe and long-term option for treatment of unilateral vocal fold paralysis.

from the Journal of Voice

Laryngeal Electromyography: Clinical Application

Laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) is a valuable adjunct in clinical management of patients with voice disorders. LEMG is valuable in differentiating vocal fold paresis/paralysis from cricoarytenoid joint fixation. Our data indicate that visual assessment alone is inadequate to diagnose neuromuscular dysfunction in the larynx and that diagnoses based on vocal dynamics assessment and strobovideolaryngoscopy are wrong in nearly one-third of cases, based on LEMG results. LEMG has also proven valuable in diagnosing neuromuscular dysfunction in some dysphonic patients with no obvious vocal fold movement abnormalities observed during strobovideolaryngoscopy. Review of 751 patients suggests that there is a correlation between the severity of paresis and treatment required to achieve satisfactory outcomes; that is, LEMG allows us to predict whether patients will probably require therapy alone or therapy combined with surgery. Additional evidence-based research should be encouraged to evaluate efficacy further.

from the Journal of Voice